Penicillin a microscope and realized that the

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Penicillin is one of the most popular antibiotics out there. Whether its an ear infection or something as deadly as pneumonia penicillin is the miracle drug that can cure such ailments. Penicillin was discovered by Dr. Alexander Fleming, a  bacteriologist who worked at St. Mary’s Hospital. He was examining some colonies of Staphylococcus aureus and noted that a mold called Penicillium notatum had contaminated his Petri dishes. He placed the dishes under a microscope and realized that the mold prevented the normal growth of the staphylococci.There was something about the Penicillium mold that  inhibited the growth of the bacteria. From there it was thought about if such a thing could be used to combat bacterial diseases. In order to get to such a place that the penicillium mold could be commercially distributed the purification process of it needed to be constructed. “It was Howard Florey, Ernst Chain and their colleagues at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at Oxford University who turned penicillin from a laboratory curiosity into a life-saving drug(Alexander )” They worked endlessly on the purification and chemistry of penicillin. To carry out experiments and clinical trials with the drug the team needed to process up to 500 liters a week of mold filtrate. They grew it in unlikely culture vessels such as baths, bedpans, milk churns and food tins. “A team of “penicillin girls” were hired in order to inoculate and look after the fermentation. The Oxford laboratory was being turned into a penicillin factory. It was biochemist Norman Heatley who extracted penicillin from the filtrate coming off the production line by extracting it into amyl acetate and then back into water, using a countercurrent system(Alexander ).” “Edward Abraham, another biochemist who was employed to help step up production, then used the newly discovered technique of alumina column chromatography to remove impurities from the penicillin prior to clinical trials(Alexander ).” In 1940, Florey carried out experiments, which showed that penicillin could protect mice from infection caused deadly Streptococci.The first recipient of the Oxford penicillin was 43-year old policeman, Albert Alexander. He developed a life-threatening infection with huge abscesses as a result of him scratching the side of his mouth while pruning roses. These abscesses affected his eyes, face, and lungs. He was treated with penicillin injections and within days he made a remarkable recovery. Unfortunately, supplies of the drug ran out and he passed away a few days later because of the infection. Following that case, there were better results with other patients and soon there were plans to make penicillin available for British troops on the battlefield. As a result of war-time conditions the commercialization and mass production of penicillin was difficult. Penicillin made its war debut when supplies of it were sent with the troops making the D-day landings in June 1944. It was discovered that the antibiotic was extremely effective against gangrene. As a result, of penicillin being introduced to the battlefield the death toll from infected wounds dramatically decreased. Penicillin was also used to solve a problem that plagued the battlefield in world war 1 which was the wait time between when a soldier was wounded and when he was seen by a doctor for surgery or treatment. The average wait time between a soldier being wounded and seeing a doctor was nearly 14 hours. The longer the wait, the higher the probability that the wound would be infected and would need amputation. “Administering penicillin to the wounded vastly reduced the chance that the wound could get infected and increased the survival chances in the interim time between the wounding and surgery(How Did the).”Though the discovery of penicillin and other antibiotics proved to be revolutionary and positive, some negative aspects of it came to arise.”When antibiotics areused incorrectly for too short a time, or too small a dose, at inadequate strengths, or for the wrong disease—bacteria are not killed and can pass on survival traits to even more bacteria(How Antibiotic).” This results in stronger infections, increased illness and even death The excessive use of antibiotics, including prolonged treatments of insufficient strength to kill all the bacteria can create resistant bacteria. With resistant bacterial either it is very difficult to get rid of such a thing or it is impossible. Antibiotics aren’t just used in humans they are used in cattle, poultry, swine and other food. It is said that up to 70 percent of all antibiotics produced in the U.S. are given to animals whom are used for food, not people. As a result of many foods having antibiotics in them every time a human ingests such food they are ingesting antibiotics. With ingesting such drugs frequently with meals humans are over using antibiotics and are killing bacteria frequently. With bacteria being rid of so frequently drug resistant organisms are evolving and reproducing which is why unnecessary antibiotic use is detrimental.” According to the World Health Organization, “widespread use of antimicrobials for disease control and growth promotion in animals has been paralleled by an increase in resistance in those bacteria (such as Salmonella and Campylobacter) that can spread from animals, often through food, to cause infections in humans(How Antibiotic).”” The term superbugs is used to describe strains of bacteria that are resistant to the majority of antibiotics commonly used today. Resistant bacteria is a danger we now face because of evolutionary natural selection, with the misuse and overuse of antibiotics dramatically escalating the process. “

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