P2P is a distributed communications
model in, each party hold the same capabilities with either party could
initiate a communication session. Different client/server model,
wherein the client composes a service request and the server conform a request,
the P2P network model permits each node to function
as both a client and server.

P2P systems can be used to run
anonymised routing of network traffic, massive parallel computing settings,
distributed storage and other functions. P2P networking makes file sharing easy and
suitable, is also has run through a lots of software piracy and illegal music

When connected to the network, P2P
software lets you to quest for files on others people’s computers. In the
meantime, other users on the grid the can search for files on your computers,
although typically only within a single folder that you have designated to

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A networking operating system is not essential

Does not need an costly server since individual
workstations are used to access the files

A specialist staff such as network technicians
are not required, because each user sets their own authorization as to which
files they are willing to part.

It’s much easier to setup than a client-server
network – does not need specialist knowledge

If single a computer fails, it will not disrupt
any other part of the network. It just means those files aren’t available to
those user at that time



Because others might be accessing
each computer, it can slow down performance for the user.

Files and folders cannot
centrally backed up

Files and resources are not
centrally organized into a specific

‘Shared area’. They are kept
on separate computers and might be difficult to locate if the computers owner
does not have logging filing system.


Guaranteeing that viruses are
not presented  to the network is the
accountability of each individual user 

There is diminutive or no
security beside the authorizations. Users frequently do not need to log into






client-server model is the connection amid two computers in which, the client,
makes a service request from the alternative, the server. The main point about
a client-server model is that the client is reliant on on the server to provide
and manage the information/data.

For instance,
websites are stored on web servers. A web browser remains as the client, which
creates a request to the server, and the server sends the website to the

Its essential widespread
websites need powerful servers to serve thousands or millions of clients, all
making requests at the similar time. The client side of a web application is
often mentioned to as the front end. The server side is mentioned to as the
back end.

A great
percentage of business applications operate on the client-server model, as does
the Internet’s main program, IP/TCP. For a sample, the minute you review your
bank account from your computer, a client program in your computer forwards an
invitation to a server program at the bank. That program may in turn forward a
request to its own client program, which formerly sends a request to a database
server at a different bank computer.







Dissimilar to P2P, where there is no essential administration, in here
remains the architecture there is a centralized control. Servers assist in
administering the whole set-up. Entree rights and resource allocation is
completed by Servers.

All the files are kept at the same place. In this way, management of files
becomes easy. In addition, it becomes easier to find files.

Numerous platforms in the network, server can be accessed remotely.

Guidelines defining security and admission rights can be defined at the
time of set-up of server.

As new data is uploaded in database, individually workstation need not
have its own storage capacities increased. All the changes are made only in
central computer on which server database exists.



Too many requirements from the clients might top to
congestion, which infrequently concede place in P2P network. Overrun can lead
to breaking-down of servers. In peer-to-peer, the total bandwidth of the
network increases as the number of peers increase.

Client-Server architecture is not as vigorous as a P2P
and if the server decline, the whole network goes down. In addition, if you are
downloading a file from server and it gets abandoned due to some error,
download stops altogether. Though, if there had been peers, they would have
provided the damaged parts of file.

It is very costly to install and be able to maintain
this type of computing.

You need specialized IT persons to maintain the
servers and other technical particulars of network.




topology mentions to how computers are linked to the physical or logical of a
network. There are three main types of network topology: bus, ring and star. Physical
topology highlights the physical outline of the connected devices and nodes,
while the logical topology focuses on the form of data transfer among network





Ring Topology


A ring topology is a network configuration
in which device connections create a circular data path.
Separate networked device is connected to two others, like points on a circle.
Composed, devices in a ring topology are mentioned as a ring network.




data streams in one direction, plummeting the chance of packet collisions.

network server is not required to control network connectivity among for each

is able to transfer between workstations at high speeds.

workstations can be combined without affecting performance of the network.



Each packet of
data must pass through all the computers between source and destination. This
makes it slower than Star topology.

If one
workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected.

Network is
highly dependent on the wire, which connects different components. 

Network cards
are expensive as compared to Ethernet cards and hubs. 



Bus topology


a bus network all the workstations, servers and printers are connected to bus
cable. At each end of the cable, a terminator is fitted to halt signals
reflecting back down the bus. Often, the cable in the bus topology has double
end terminals that reduce the signal so that it does not keep moving from one
of the other.




It works fine when you have a
small network.
Easiest network topology for
connecting computers or peripherals in a linear manner.
Needs less cable length than a
star topology.



Difficult to identify the
problems if the whole network goes down.
It can be hard to troubleshoot
individual device issues.
Not great for large networks.
Terminators are required for
both ends of the main cable.
Additional devices slow the
network down.
If a main cable is damaged, the
network fails or splits into two.


Star topology


Star topology is one of the maximum-shared network systems. In this structure,
all node connects
to a central network device, like a hub, switch, or computer.
The central network device acts as a server and the
peripheral devices turn as clients.



management of the network, with the central computer, hub, or switch.
simple to add to add additional computer to the network.
If one
computer on the network is unsuccessful, the rest of the network continues
to function normally.





Additional cables are required to linked because
each computer separately connects to a central server

Additional hardware required (hubs/switches)
which increases  budget

If a hub switch is unsuccessful all devices
connected to the hub will have no network status 

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