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Abstract
Importance of security in ad-hoc networks is increasing due to a tremendous boon in mobile equipment usage. 

Introduction
An ad-hoc network is a type of decentralized, peer-to-peer, wireless network. It is composed of individual devices communicating with each other directly. These networks do not rely on pre-existing infrastructure like access points. Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a type of ad-hoc network that is a self-configuring, self-organizing and infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected without wires. The highly dynamic and infrastructure-less nature of ad-hoc networks makes it more susceptible to security attacks as compared to networks with pre-existing infrastructure. Providing security in MANET is difficult to achieve considering its lack of centralized control and limited availability of resources.

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Security Services
Routing in MANET requires secure data transmission. There are five standard goals to achieve complete security in MANET.

Authentication- This ensures that the data transmission and communication occurs only between authorized nodes. The goal of this service is to provide a trusted connection between the end nodes. With the use of certification, authentication can be achieved. 

Availability- According to this, every authorized node in the network should have access to the data and the services. The data should be available to the network when in need. A technique called trust-based clustering approach is used to achieve availability of services and data in the network. 
Confidentiality- Nodes in the network can only access the data that they are permitted to. Any other node that does not have the permission to access, cannot breach the security protocol. This can be achieved using encryption techniques.

Integrity- This ensures that the data that is being transmitted should not be altered during the routing between nodes in the network. Only the authorized nodes are permitted to modify the data. 

Non-Repudiation- 

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