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The Insomnia of hope   
Pilgrimage as a Liminal-Heterotopian Space of hope

Mohammad Nasravi

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Dissatisfaction from the reality of everyday life leads human beings to think about liberating intention. In doing so they explore a path so as to escape toward an alternative possible reality compensating the lacking in the actual life. This temptation could be seen as the core of utopian thinking. The concept of utopia has been a topic of much thought and discussion among the scholars of politics, cultural studies, philosophy, and sociologists for the past decades. Searching for a possible space between reality and fantasy is a central notion of Ernst Bloch’s utopian thinking which forms his main work the principle of hope (1986). Other thinkers tempt to investigate for utopia. Regarding, Michel Foucault coined term ‘heterotopia’ the real space in which reflects the unreal utopia (Foucault and Miskowiec, 1986). Similarly, Bloch tempts to distinguish between ‘abstract’ and ‘concrete’ utopia. Homogeneously, Henri Lefebvre who precisely deal with “everyday life” phenomenon, considers space as a privileged means to explore alternative and emancipatory strategies (Harvey, 2000). Indeed, it could be assumed that spaces in which the alternative of being is possible. By the same token, in terms of pilgrimage Victor and Edith Turner (1978) believe that pilgrimage offer an alternative mode of social being (Turner et al., 1978). In this regard, it could pondered this question that, under light of Bloch’s concrete utopia and Foucault’s heterotopia is pilgrimage able to considered as a space offering a pathway to escape from the reality of everyday life in which could be dwelled in the alternative possible reality of being?  
What follows in this chapter, is a temptation to address this question, by investigating the process of liminality throughout studying the constructed realty in everyday life; the “emplacement” and identity which is shaped in this space. The main features of everyday life is recognized. Afterward, the category of possibility, abstract, and concrete utopia in Bloch’s idea is studied. Then the correlation between heterotopia and concrete utopia is illustrated. Then, the concept of “liminality” is examined in the frame of concrete utopia and heterotopia. Finally, in order to studying the phenomenon of pilgrimage through utopian studies as a process it is suggest that, Pilgrimage as the one of ritualistic aspects of human beings could be seen as liminal-heterotopic space which shapes the possible alternative space of hope. The space in which human beings represent their temptation so as to escape from the world of social norms and structures which is called the reality of everyday life. 
Victor Turner (1920-1983) was a British anthropologist who worked on social change, symbols, rituals and rites of passage. He believed that rituals and ceremonies on the basis of social structure and order. It seems that this idea rooted in structural anthropology. The founder of this school was Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009).
Due to the fact that Turner was influenced by “structural anthropology” school. He recognized “structure” based on this school (Turner et al., 1978).Thus, In order to understanding his words it could be introduced. Based on the theory of structuralism, all cultures are connected by fundamental and unchangeable structures. These structures are common to all human minds, in various cultures (Levi-Strauss, 1963). Strauss would see social life as a system, a set of relations that precede the individual (Deliège and Scott, 2004). Inside this frame, Turner studied cultural phenomenon such as pilgrimage. He developed the idea of rites of passage in terms of studying tribal societies.  

Turner understands rites of passage to have three stages. Firstly, the participant is stripped of their social status. Secondly the participant passes through a transitional or liminal phase which is unstructured possibly chaotic and allows egalitarian relationships between community members. Thirdly, the participant is reintegrated into the community with an elevated status. Tuner made use of Arnold Van Gennep’s idea of liminality, the threshold, or boundary in his thought and works (Turner, 1969, Turner, 1973, Turner, 1977, Turner et al., 1978, Turner, 1979, Turner, 1974). 

In the first step the liminality concept will be introduced. The pilgrimage rite was investigated by Turner (1978) as a process on the light of Gennep’s theory, “rites de passage” which focuses on “liminality” concept.   
This theory, marked by three main factors, separation, limen or margin, and aggregation. (Van Gennep, 1960 quoted in, Turner et al., 1978, Turner, 1973). The
all cultures are linked by deep, unchanging structures. These structures are common to all human minds, across different culture.      

Departure point:
As a general perspective, in this chapter, the movement of a person as a “pilgrim” from on space to another space is studied. The journey of pilgrim from everyday life towards pilgrimage process. From a historical perspective, there are numerous instances shows that pilgrimage was made in medieval period as adventure (Ure, 2006). It seems that, due to fact that, the place in which people lived was different from the times and places they experience throughout pilgrimage, it was attractive for them (Ure, 2006). Indeed, there were several differences between everyday life space and pilgrimage. Similarly, nowadays, new man lives in a specific space where they live, work, play, and so on. In this space they carry a plethora type of identities such as housewife, employer, boos, manager, commuter, and so forth. They live under a repetitive rhythm of living. Therefore, from general frame, the phenomenon of everyday life could be identified from a sociological point of view. It consists of various features in terms of identity, time, reality, and so on. There are many questions could be pondered about everyday life such as: what is the reality of everyday life? How identities are formed in the everyday life? How “time” and “space” are produced in everyday life? Finally, what is the relation between dissatisfaction and everyday life? 
The reality of everyday life could be explored in the first place.  There are several studies undertook by Marxist thinker about the idea of everyday life. It is seen such a vague phenomenon. For instance, one of the remarkable thinker in this field is Henri Lefebvre, from his point of view, the concept of everyday life is ambiguous and contradictory. One the one hand, Everyday life meets our needs and expectations. On the other hand, it cusses problems leading to dissatisfaction (Lefebvre, 1988). Therefore, the reality of everyday life is bilateral phenomenon.  On the one side is satisfaction and on the other dissatisfaction. Nonetheless, the reality of everyday life is a par excellence reality among multiple realities.     
Berger and Luckmann argued that, the more accessible reality in which we work and live is the reality of everyday life: “in this world of working my consciousness is dominated by the pragmatic motive, that is, my attention to this world is mainly determined by what I am doing, have done or plan to do it.”(Berger and Luckmann, 1991). In other words, the reality of everyday life is a realm of possibilities in which live in. in this sphere my consciousness is shaped and I know myself and others. Cohen and Tailor browed the “paramount reality” term from Berger and Luckmann to describe this sphere. They believe that, the paramount reality constructed the consciousness.            
Concesnous and paramount reality 

Identity and emplacement 

Everyday life 
It seems that, the flow of everyday life shapes our identity. The identity is a vital element in terms of understanding ourselves in the space of everyday life. One thing can be said with certainty about identity is that it is defined and recognized in the interconnected spaces which form everyday life. In other words, identity formed by everyday life the reality constituting our conciseness (Cohen and Taylor, 1976).    
Social structures and orders  
The distinction between concrete and abstract utopia 
Alternative reality 
Six principles 
Social Space 
alternative space 
From abstract to concrete utopia 
The space of hope 
Identity in pilgrimage
Pilgrimage as a heterotopian-liminal space
As a Process 

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FOUCAULT, M. & MISKOWIEC, J. 1986. Of other spaces. diacritics, 16, 22-27.
HARVEY, D. 2000. Spaces of Hope, University of California Press.
LEFEBVRE, H. 1988. Toward a leftist cultural politics: Remarks occasioned by the centenary of Marx’s death. Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Springer.
LEVI-STRAUSS, C. 1963. Structural analysis in linguistics and anthropology. Structural anthropology, 1, 31-54.
TURNER, V. 1973. The center out there: Pilgrim’s goal. History of religions, 12, 191-230.
TURNER, V. 1977. Chapter III: Variations on a Theme of Liminality. Secular ritual, Assen: Gorcum, 36-52.
TURNER, V., TURNER, V. W. & TURNER, E. 1978. Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture, Columbia University Press.
TURNER, V. W. 1969. The ritual process : structure and anti-structure, London, Routledge & K. Paul.
TURNER, V. W. 1974. Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society, Cornell University Press.
TURNER, V. W. 1979. Process, performance, and pilgrimage: a study in comparative symbology, Concept Publishing Company.
URE, J. 2006. Pilgrimage : the great adventure of the Middle Ages, London, Constable.
VAN GENNEP, A. 1960. The Rites of passage, London, Routeledge and Kegan Paul.



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