ORIGINS: “Completing Einstein”, SCIENCE 85, vol 6,

Published by admin on

ORIGINS: Background & Bibliography
Assembled for the PHILOsophy Conference of:
Computer ConnectionPO Box 382
BBS (609) 784-9404Voorhees, NJ 08043
by T.A. HareNov. 13, 1985
Topic: Areas of interaction between philosophy, science, andreligion.

Part I- Big Bang (Astronomy)
Part II – Unified Field (Particle Physics)
Part III – Evolution (Biology).

Part IV – Theologic interaction
– – – –
Part II – Unified Field Theory of Particle Physics:

And God said, “Let there be an expanse between the waters
to separate water from water.” (Gen. 1:6)
And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place,
and let dry ground appear.” And it was so. (Gen. 1:9)
– – – –
Further reading:
1. John H. Schwartz, “Completing Einstein”, SCIENCE 85, vol 6, pp 60-64,

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

2. Robert Palmer, “What’s a Quark?”, SCIENCE 85, VOL 6, pp 66-71, 1985
3. Bruce Schechter, “The Moment of Creation”, DISCOVER, April 1983,
pp 18-25.

4. Lawrence R. Sulak, “Waiting for the Proton to Decay”, AMERICAN
SCIENTIST, 70, 616-625, 1982.

5. Mary K. Gaillard, “Toward a Unified Picture of Elementary Particle
Interactions”, AMERICAN SCIENTIST 70, 506-514.

– – – –
The following background articles were downloaded from American Adacemic
Encyclopedia via Dow Jones News Retrevial Service; Nov 12, 1985
Classical attempts at devising a unified field theory, principally those
of Einstein, were concerned with the combination of gravitation (the
general theory of RELATIVITY) and electromagnetism into the same
theoretical framework. Electromagnetism is described by MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
for an antisymmetric tensor, whereas Einstein’s theory of gravitation
centers about a symmetric metric tensor; Einstein’s idea was to combine
both descriptions into a single, nonsymmetric tensor, thereby treating both
subjects from an essentially geometric point of view. Other attempts to
incorporate electromagnetism into the basically geometric formalism of
general relativity were made by Hermann Weyl (1918) and more recently by
John Wheeler; although some theories are more esthetic than others, all
lack the connection with quantum phenomena that is so important for
interactions other than gravitation.

More-recent attempts at unification have been made from the quite
different point of view of merging the quantum field theories that (are
supposed to) describe the four FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS of gravity,
electromagnetism, and the weak and the strong nuclear interactions. The
most palatable unification so far has been given by Steven WEINBERG of
Harvard University and independently by Abdus SALAM of Imperial College,
London, joining electromagnetism and the weak interactions. In the simplest
version of this type of unified gauge theory, forces are transmitted by the
exchange of four different types of particles called bosons, which are
assumed to be massless. By means of a “broken symmetry” an effective
generation of masses occurs, so that the Weinberg-Salam theory envisages
the weak interactions as being transmitted by massive “W” mesons, in which
one meson, identified with the photon, remains massless, while the other
three, identified with the quanta that transmit the weak interaction, are
estimated to be quite heavy. Their rest-mass energies are on the order of
50 to 100 times the mass of the proton, and their observation should become
possible with the next generation of high-energy accelerators. So far, the
Weinberg-Salam theory has passed every unambiguous test to which it has
been subjected. Weinberg and Salam shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for physics
for their model.

Many other unified theories, involving strong interaction and even
gravitation, have recently been proposed. Such grand unification schemes to
date have unavoidable and questionable consequences, such as the removal of
the separate conservation of baryon and lepton number; they predict a
proton could decay into a lepton plus pions–an improbable event that is
actively being searched for at present. Recent grand unification schemes
require the existence of magnetic MONOPOLES. These hypothetical particles,
also called grand unification monopoles (GUMs), are thought to be very
massive, with a mass ranging from 10 to the 16th power to 10 to the 19th
power GeV. No experimental evidence of monopoles has yet been found.H.

Bergmann, Peter G., Introduction to the Theory of Relativity (1942;
repr. 1976)
Einstein, Albert, The Meaning of Relativity, 5th ed. (1956)
Hadlock, Charles, Field Theory and Its Classical Problems (1979)
Tonnelat, Marie A., Einstein’s Theory of Unified Fields (1966).

– – – –
Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity has caused major revolutions in
physics and astronomy during the 20th century. It introduced to science the
concept of “relativity”–the notion that there is no absolute motion in



I'm Iren!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out