NTRODUCTIONThis applies to oil and gas industries
NTRODUCTIONThis report presents uses of passive and active fire protection systems used in the oil and gas industry to minimize the risk of accidental fires. All application will be set in accordance with British National Standards and guidelines in order to apply the most efficient fire prevention techniques. The applications of the fire control system will be set in accordance with appropriate designing, operations, and maintenance of the entire manufacturing facility in order to deliver sufficient fire prevention and awareness. SCOPE This report presents fire prevention methods applied in the petroleum industry to minimize the risk of accidental fires and designing, inspection and maintaining of fire control systems. The fire response system should provide an early response in the event of a fire to minimize the widespread of fires and damage to property. Different methods of analytical application more extensive to meet special situation will be briefly mentioned. This report applies to oil and gas industries which are mainly constructed in hazardous environments which accumulation of dangerous vapors occurs. Enclosed areas, such as quarters buildings and equipment enclosures, normally installed on this type platform, are addressed. Totally enclosed platforms installed for extreme weather conditions or other reasons are beyond the scope of this Report. OBJECTIVES • Prevent escalation of accidental of fires by implementing spacing that effectively separates the processing unit, process drainage system, buildings and large structure.• Avoid serious injuries and loss of life by providing necessary means of approach for emergency responders to a fire and access for workforces to isolate equipment.• Provide early detection to prevent the spread of fire and warning devices and to enable emergency systems to operate and shutdown. • Safeguard structural steel by providing passive and active fire safety systems in dangerous areasOIL AND GAS INDUSTRY CODES, STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES Various establishments developed standards, codes, specifications and recommended practices which are approved by the government and oil and gas industry. Reasonable consideration with the latest edition of the publications must be considered while setting up fire prevention applications like designing, installation and operation of fire systems. Information provided on some of these publications listed below is not all linked to the oil and gas industry some of these are not applicable to oil and gas operations; • Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSWA), Sections 2 and 3 • Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (SCR05), Regulation 14 • Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 (PFEER), Regulations 5, 9, 12 and 13 • Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc), Regulations 1996 (DCR) Regulation 5 • IGNITION AND FUEL SOURCESThe three fundamental sources that must be present for a fire to ignite are air (oxygen), fuel and source of ignition. Eliminating one of the three sources prevents the like hood from developing an accidental fire.FUELS Fuel is categorized according to the type of fire they produce on the basis of the material burring. To facilitate the proper use of extinguishers on different types of fires, the Health and Safety has classified fires as follows:Class A Fires; are mainly combustible materials like; cloth, wood, paper, rubber, and plastics. These materials are mainly found on offshore platforms. Building materials, framework, fiber ropes, skids and Supplies-wood decking. Waste materials and cleaning rugs and tarpaulins Class B Fires; are categorized as flammable liquids, gases, and grease. These materials are mainly found on offshore platforms e.g. Oils and condensate, gas and vapors or hydrocarbons. Building materials, paint, welding and cutting gases. Operating materials and heat transfer fluids, hydraulic fluids, fuels, glycols, and lubricants. Class C Fires; are mainly energized electrical apparatus. In this particular case, electrical non-conductivity of the extinguishing agent is important. The classification of the fire changes to Class A or B when equipment is de-energized. Class D Fires; Class 0 fires are mainly combustible metals like; zirconium, sodium, and magnesium. IGNITION SOURCES Ignition arises due to sufficient heat transfer to cause combustion. Element influencing resultant combustion are energy, temperature, and exposure. The ignition sources that might be found on offshore production are; Chemical Reaction. The possibility of a chemical reaction producing heat is likely. The heat produced is likely to ignite the substances reaction on nearby materials. A chemical reaction that is likely to occur on an offshore platform spontaneous combustion.Offshore facilities producing sulfide are likely to develop iron sulfide as a cause of corrosion. Spontaneous combustion, when exposed to air, is likely to occur due iron sulfide producing a source of heat. FIRE PREVENTION PRACTICES Well-designed facilities and training of safe operation producers can best the protection against the occurrence of fire. The designed facilities should operate to account for all the necessary risks associated with a temporary situation like workover, drilling, and construction. The operating practices must be able to eliminate sources of fuel in the event of a fire. FACILITY DESIGN The facility must be designed to provide mitigation in the event of a fire, stop ignition of those that do esca and should also contain hydrocarbons. The following measures that should be considered are;Platform Safety System; Platform Safety System employs an important role in preventing fire and minimizing the effect their effect. AbnormalEquipment Arrangement. The equipment should set up on the platform to provide maximum separation of fuel sources and ignition. Guideline for organizing equipment can be obtained from BSC. Certain attention must be applied to the positioning of fire vessels and situation of temporary equipment during operation, completion, construction tasks.Prevention of ignition Devices. The equipment must be equipped with spark and flame arrestors to avoid sparks from discharging. Recommended guidance is present in (BSC) Hot surface protection. “According to BSC the temperature in excess of 400f (204 C) must be safeguarded from mist and hydrocarbon liquid, and surfaces in excess of 900 F (482 C) must be safeguarded from flammable gases and fumes. This should refer to BSC….Fire Barriers; constructed with fire resistant properties are beneficial in special conditions to stop the wide spreading of forces and provide a head shield. Fire barriers must be carefully located to avoid the possibility obstructing of natural ventilation to stop the accumulation of hydrocarbon fume and gases. Additional information regarding fire barriers can be obtained from BSC. Electrical Protection; protection for electrical sources necessary provided by the designing and installation of equipment in accordance with (BSC). Combustible gas can be determined by gas dictation unit with alarm activation or system shutdown. The gas dictation system alarms certain parameter set by personal, the best will be to set alarm to activate the baser on lower or higher gas Bulk storage; The records of flammable fluids must be carried out regular with operationFIRE DETECTION AND ALARMS GENERAL The fire detection and alarms system should be designed to energize at earliest stages of fire to prevent the widespread fire. FIRE DETECTIONPremature detection of fires is essential to reduce damage. Fire detection can be carried out by automatic devices or by personnel observation. Personnel Observation; personnel may notice the fire and activate the alarms before automatic detection.Automatic Fire Detection System; The main function of automatic fire detection system is to alarm and alert personals of the fire hazard and identification of the location of the fire. The automatic fire detection may also be used to eliminate the fire hazard by the means of activation of emergency stops, isolating machinery, isolating fuel sources, starting fire pumps and trigger fire extinguishing system with agents like water, form and dry chemical.Fusible Loop System; Fusible Loop System containing a pressure pneumatic lines which are well positioned near fusible elements are mainly used as automatic fire detection system. If the design of the system is systematically allied using the best practices and industrial guidelines can be very reliable. However, filer to execute this system can lead to undictated fires at premature stages. Specific caution must be taken into account during selection of temperature rating for fusible elements. Electrical Systems; electrical fire dictation system consists of central fire monitoring system located at the control panel. The application of fire alarms must be properly installed practicing specific guideline to ensure that the system is effective in the event of an accidental fire. The electrical fire system has calibration options and automatic testing features. The factors required to select the type of detector are; classification, type of combustible material sensor speed of response, and electrical area of classification. Additional factors should be considered like spurious alarms caused by lightning strikes and environmental disaster. The system has to installed in accordance with Flame detectors; flame detectors deliver a high-speed response in the event of an accidental fire. The flame detectors must not be vulnerable to false alarms due to environmental factors; therefore, it might desirable to pair the devices using appropriate voting system e.g. (UV/IR) to lower false alarms. Alarms Systems must be installed on manned according to (BS) regulation. General Alarms, Manned platforms should have manual activation points throughout entire structure and the visual alarm must be installed in high noise areas. The manual alarm must be positioned near evacuation routes and special attention must be given to delivering means to initiate alarms at ESD locations. FIRE WATER SYSTEMS Firewater systems are generally installed on offshore platforms provide exposure to safety, for control of burning. The designing principles must be strategically applied and may involve coverage of platforms equipment like glycol regenerators, storage, compressors, shipping and processing pumps. The fire water system must able to deliver the required function designed to perform. The system should able to provide personnel with means of preventing fire quickly and effectively before major damages occur. Fire protection guidelines state a fire protection system that can be controlled by one or two personnel must provide sufficient fire control equipmentGENERAL Passive fire protection system plays a major role in the protection of the structural building, equipment, and personnel from harm by fire. Information regarding maintenance, rating, and penetration found in Appendix F. Passive fire protection is commonly referred to as (PFP) in government regulations. PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION Fireproofing; provides a degree of fire resistance for protected substrates and assemblies. The fireproofing objectives; • To provide protection to structural steel to a certain degree until emergency firefighting capabilities are deployed to mitigate the fires.• To maintain plant equipment that must keep on operating during the event of a fire like remotely operated emergency stops, critical electrical instruments, depressing valves, and actuators, requires fireproofing to remain operable for a distinct period of time. • To ensure the requirement of fireproofing is integrated with the drainage system.FIREPROOFING MATERIALS Different types of fireproofing materials available and currently in use in the industry. These materials range from preformed inorganic panels, masonry blocks, artificial mineral fibers, lightweight concrete, preformed inorganic panels and ablative mastics, and subliming. Material which is mainly used in the oil and gas industry, are broken into two groups active and inactive insulants. Active insulants experience a chemical reaction and physical when visible to fire and inactive insulants do not. Active insulants; are mainly available as ceramic fiber or similar fireproofing material buildings in an epoxy-based matrix which contains additional chemicals designed to produce some chemical and physical effect when exposed to heat. Typical active insulants are obtainable in multiple part mixtures which form slurry suitable for spray application when mixed together. Inactive insulants; are grouped in two general categories cementitious materials and artificial fibers like mineral wool or ceramic fiber. The cementitious materials are effectively cement-based materials of a firebrick refractory mixture, which are usually mixed as a slurry and spry-applied. Artificial fibers insulate are available in different forms bulk, panels, blankets etc. Foam forming additives rise the efficiency water in controlling pooled-hydrocarbon fires. FIRE PROTECTION ZONE Fire Protection Zone (FPZ) is a zone where there is a possibility for triggering process fire that steel supporting structures inside the FPZ requires being fireproofed and must be designed with adequate drainage as possible for spillage of flammables; FPZ includes Ground level within 9 meters horizontally and 12meters vertically that has equipment with high fire possibility in a scenario of a fuel liquid discharge.Raised surfaces or platforms that could retain the substantial capacity of liquid hydrocarbons. Such raised floors or platforms shall be treated as were on the ground floor level for analyzing the vertical distance for fireproofing. ?Machinery rotating, 9 meters horizontal and 12m vertical distance will be taken from the expected source.