Nando 1972, the Old Christians Rugby Club was

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Nando Parrado was born in 1949, in Montevideo, Uruguay. Parrado grew up in a middle class family that consisted of his father, Seler, his mother, Eugenia, and his two sisters. His family was a huge part of his life and it continues to be to this day. Growing up, Nando’s parents had to work long hours as the owners of a saddle store. Later, Parrado’s parents converted their store into a hardware store. Because the store was one of the first of its type in Uruguay, their store quickly became one of the premier hardware stores in the whole country. This lead the Parrado family to wealth. Family wealth  allowed Nando Parrado to attend the Christian Brotherhood School. Nando also played rugby for the Old Christians, a top of the line rugby club. In 1972, the Old Christians Rugby Club was on their way to a match in Chile when their plane crashed in the middle of the Andes mountains. Nando was left in the cold to die with a severe and a shattered skull. Somehow, Nando woke from a coma to find out that his mother and best friend died and his sister was only hanging on by a thread. Nando spent all of his energy trying to save his sister, but she was too damaged to be saved. While starving on the Andes mountains with 31 other survivors Nando became determined to return to his father. The survivors were forced to eat the flesh of their dead friends in order to survive. After an avalanche killed more of his friends, Nando and one of the other survivors, Roberto, went on a 10 day trek over and across more than 70 miles in the heart of the Andes mountains. Just when the two expeditionaries could not move any more, a local peasant farmer found them. Nando was able to reconnect with his father, but both would never be the same due to the loss of their mother and sister. Nando also felt lost because the crash turned his life completely around, and he did not understand why it happened to him. He also began questioning and wondering what would have happened if he did things prior to the crash differently, especially his decision to persuade his Mom and sister to come along when they were against the trip at the beginning. While recovering in the hospital, Nando’s father said,”You will have a future. You will have a life”(246 Parrado). In the months after the rescue, Nando felt like he deserved fun, so he took advantage of his notoriety and he started to try to enjoy life by partying and living life to the fullest. Nando later met a famous race car driver, who was one of his heros as a child. They became instant friends, and he began racing cars himself. Before competing in one of Uruguay’s biggest races, he ran into an old friend, and Nando knew that she should be his future wife. They ended up getting married and having two daughters. Nando realized that if he never had to endure the Andes mountains he probably never would have had all these people in his life. Currently, Nando owns Uruguay’s most popular hardware store and he produces five TV stations where he writes, edits, and directs every single day. He decided to write Miracle in the Andes because he realized that his story was one of the disappointments of life, but also the joys of life, and he believed that his story was one that everyone could connect to. Nando’s father was just as devastated over the crash because he was a very family centered man, and the crash killed his whole family. When talking about his wife, Nando’s father said,”I needed her so badly then, but she was gone, and without her I was lost”(Parrado 244).B.Country InformationUruguay had a civic-military dictatorship was founded in June 27, 1973 that lasted until  February 28, 1985.  Known as the Uruguayan Dictatorship, was an authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Uruguay for ten years. Before the 1970s, Uruguay was known as the freest and safest South American country, with Its judiciary system being like no other. As a result of personal and human rights, as well as formal social control under the Uruguayan Dictatorship, many citizens of Uruguay were suppressed. This caused many of the citizens to leave the country  as political refugees. Many that’s stayed were imprisoned, tortured, or killed by the police and the military. After democracy was reestablished, the country returned to the previous system of social control. Some struggles that Uruguay faces today are low fertility rate, concentration of population in a small coastal area, and very few cities. half of the total population lives in the capital city. low immigration inflow is also a big issue since the 1950’s, as Uruguay (in terms of migration flows) has had over ? of its population leave the country. Today, it has become a real structural problem as the depopulation of its citizens has had a huge impact on social debt and stimulating job creation. because of the government’s own economic policies, efforts to acknowledge this decline have not been quick enough to meet the country needs. This is partly due to the debt that Uruguay owes to the U.S. Government. education funding and delays in the development of a comprehensive healthcare system are also factors affected by the debt. Other problems include: Pollution of Drinking Water, Livestock and its effect on water, Deforestation, Pulp Mills, Afforestation, and Heavy Metal Pollution. Some say that a free trade agreement with the United States would be a good thing for the country. This is exactly what the government has been trying to do. Uruguay also has many good things going for it. 95% of its electricity is from renewable energy resources. Prices of electricity have fallen as a result of the shift in energy creation. The legalization of marijuana will also generate tax money and will also solve the problem of drug cartels and their influence on the country.C.Historical Context     Quotes for Perseverance: Nando goes through many hardships through all of the story, but the hardest was by far, his trek to the outskirts of Chile.  Roberto was with Nando throughout the trek as a strong companion and survivor. His most prominent characteristic that kept him alive was his persevering attitude and his will to survive. He keeps going even when death is knocking on his door, and fights grueling weather, steep inclines, and starvation so that he can live. This is most notably seen in the middle of the book when Roberto and Nando are on the verge of death, fighting for every foot of ground, trying to stay alive amongst harsh conditions. Nando digs deep within himself to overcome his bodies weakness and push through. In the midst of his horrid trek, he states; “I Knew we were walking ourselves to death, but I couldn’t make myself stop. My pain, my body didn’t matter anymore…I would burn myself to ashes if that’s what it took to get home (Parrado 211).” This results in their successful journey and effectively is the leading factor that saved all of the survivors. He also set his mind to the task at hand, and no matter the cost promised himself he would get home. Nando says that “I would walk until I had walked all the life out of me, and when I fell I would I would die that much closer to my father.” This is a great example of how persevering he was through the midst of his blatant ordeal. Another characteristic that led Nando to survival was his stubborn leadership. Many times on the slopes of the Andes, Nando’s fellow survivors began to cower when faced with a task that would possibly kill them. However, Nando always forced them to go through with the orders for the greater good. This characteristic is shown after an avalanche swept through the crash site leaving many of the remaining survivors dead. Knowing that the Andes would eventually kill them, Nando devised a plan to walk to the tail section of the plane for the reasoning of salvaging a radio. Roy the clear choice for the hike due to his technical knowledge. Roy believed he was too weak and that he would die on the trip, but Nando responded to his sobs by saying,”We are leaving soon, you’d better be ready”(159). Although the trip was unsuccessful, it was worth a shot in order to save the lives of his friends. Another time that Nando becomes a leader is when he and Roberto leave the plane and start their expedition Westwards. They both knew that the trip was a death sentence. Nonetheless, they took the journey because it was the only way that any of  the remaining survivors would have a shot at living.Page 211:”I Knew we were walking ourselves to death, but I couldn’t make myself stop. My pain, my body didn’t matter anymore…I would burn myself to ashes if that’s what it took to get home.”Page 201:”I would walk until I had walked all the life out of me, and when I fell I would I would die that much closer to my father.”

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