Most year as per Gregorian (Western) calendar. To

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Most
of the studies mainly focus on famine and infectious disease, but not focusing
on long-term impact.

In
this study, mainly I focused on early-life exposure and restricted timing of
maternal nutrition (Ramadan fasting) on fetal development link with child
mortality. Three out of four utero overlap with Ramadan, approximately 1.8
billion Muslims 24% share of the world population alive today. Prentice et
al., 1983 said ‘acceleration starvation’ occur when utero overlapped with
Ramadan with sharp decline of maternal glucose, metabolic changes and
neurological development. For many of Medical studies regarding fetus health
highly recommended that never skipping meal during pregnancy to avoid long-term
health impacts.

Almond and Mozmudar, 2011 are the first one who used
large-sample microdata on Muslims in Iraq and Uganda by comparing the birthdays
of many years overlap with Ramadan timings and estimate the reduced form effect
and ITT (intent to treat) effect with relay on decision, whether they fast or
not to fast. They found largely 20% disability in adults when Ramadan overlap
with early pregnancy in Iraq and Uganda and lower birth weight in natality data
from Michigan. Many studies also said as like poor prenatal environment lead to
fewer male offspring followed by Almond and Mozmudar, 2011 when early pregnancy
overlapped with Ramadan during peak period of daylight fasting hours 12% lower
male birth.

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As like past literature, my identification strategy also
address seasonality in birth outcomes, a potential confounder due to the
forward movement of roughly 11 days each year as per Gregorian (Western)
calendar. To disentangle the effect of seasonality I used quite large sample
with 28 birth cohorts and further I extend my analysis to “difference in
differences” to remove any seasonal effects experienced by the untreated group
of non-Muslims.

For other aspects Ramadan has a significant impact on daily
routine like sleeping, working other than fluid restriction.

Further
my paper mainly focuses on as follows. In Section 2, previous epidemiological
work on Ramadan and health and child mortality. Section 3 briefly describe
Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), ITT measures and econometric
model. Section 4 present analysis tables for both treatment group (Muslims) and
control group (Non-Muslims) and DID results and brief description of my
analysis and robustness checks. Section 5 cover concluding remarks,
implications of my research as per policy perspectives. Finally in last,
Section 6 main focus on future suggested more sensitive areas of research
related with fetal health.

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