Mending have been focusing on how to mend

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Mending a Broken Heart


Heart is the most
important part of the body and the key of blood circulation. It is located
beneath the sternum and is about the size of our fist. The heart beats average
seventy beats per minute and pumps about 5 liters of blood per minute, or total
volume of blood in the human body each minute.

Humans are not
able to live without hearts and many scientists have been focusing on how to
mend a broken heart.

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There are four
heart replacement technologies that are most well-known to modern science:
Human Heart Donation, Xenotransplantation, Tissue Engineering, and Artificial
Heart. Each method has saved many lives who suffered or could die from the
malfunction heart.


To begin with, I
would like to discuss about ‘Human Heart Donation’. This method, as the name
suggests, is replacing the malfunction heart with donor’s heart which is
donated from charity or possibly individual volunteers.  As such, the situations can be when other
treatments for errors in the heart have not worked, leading to heart failure in
the future. When the operation of heart transportation is done, you will be
able to recover after the operation in just a few weeks although you will be
weak at the beginning. It is also very crucial to have simple activities to
strengthen your body and health; “pushing, pulling or heavy lifting until your
breastbone is fully healed.” (, 2018)


Second heart
replacement technology is ‘Xenotransplantation’. As the prefix, ‘Xeno-‘ means
alien, strange and guest, this technology, unlike from ‘Human Heart Donation’, is
“any procedure that involves the transplantation, implantation or infusion into
a human recipient of either live cells, tissues, or organs from a nonhuman
animal source.” (, 2018) This technology was developed by the fact that
the need for the human organs far exceeds the current low supply. To
elaboration on, there are advantages of ‘Xenotransplantation’ not only
increasing the supply but also the therapeutic use. The technology can play a
huge role in certain diseases such as diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders,
in situation where human materials are not usually available. 


On the other hand,
there are some disadvantages. Recipients might be infected by unrecognized
infectious agents and tremendous spread of infection through their close
contacts or into the huge human population. By statement from FDA, they
commented that “Moreover, infectious agents may not be readily identifiable
with current techniques.” (, 2018) Not only that there are some issues
regarding infection but also ethical issues about the ‘Xenotransplantation’ which
will be discussed soon.


Third of all, there is a
technology called, ‘Tissue Engineering’. As heart muscle disease has been
considered a tipping point for progression to heart failure. National statics
indicates that there are over five million people damaged by heart failure each
year and about three hundred thousand deaths. Moreover, the fully-grown heart
muscle cells cannot divide into injured cells. The scar tissues result into area
of damaged myocardium. Thus, the best approach to solve this issue is to avoid
such scar formation or simply replace the formed scar tissue with functioning
cardiac muscle tissue. On the contrary, there are limitations due to short length
of cell life and poor cellular integration 

Categories: Tech & Engineering


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