Amity A 1. Compare the three schools of
Amity Centre for elearning J-Block, Amity Campus Sec-44, NOIDA (UP) India 201303 ASSIGNMENTS ADL-01-PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MANAGEMENT Subject Name & Code : ADL-01-PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MANAGEMENT Study Centre : Permanent Enrolment Number (PEN) : A1920210006(el) Student Name : Jayesh Kumar G Pillai INSTRUCTIONS a) Students are required to submit three assignments ASSIGNMENT DETAILS Assignment A Five Subjective Questions Assignment B Three Subjective Questions Case Study Assignment C 40 Objective Questions b) c) d) e) MARKS 15 + 15 10 f) Total weightage given to these assignments is 40%.
All assignments are to be completed in your own hand writing/typed. All questions are required to be attempted. All the three assignments are to be completed by due dates (specified from time to time) and mailed/given by hand for evaluation at the ACeL office Noida/your study centre. The evaluated assignments can be collected from your study centre / ACeL office after six weeks. Thereafter, these will be destroyed at the end of each semester. Signature Date : : Jayesh Kumar G Pillai 31 May 2011 (v ) Tick mark in front of the assignments submitted Assignment ‘A’ . Assignment ‘B’ v Assignment ‘C’ v ASSIGNMENT A 1. Compare the three schools of Management thought and discuss which theory is most important and why? Ans The three schools of management thought are : (a) Quantitative School of Management (b) Contingency School of Management (c) Quality School of Management Quantitative School of management During World War II, mathematicians, physicists, and other scientists joined together to solve military problems. The quantitative school of management is a result of the research conducted during World War II.
The quantitative approach to management involves the use of quantitative techniques, such as statistics, information models, and computer simulations, to improve decision making. This school consists of several branches, described in the following sections. Management science The management science school emerged to treat the problems associated with global warfare Managers can use computer models to figure out the best way to do something — saving both money and time. Managers use several science applications. Mathematical forecasting helps make projections that are useful in the planning process .
Inventory modelling helps control inventories by mathematically establishing how and when to order a product. Queuing theory helps allocate service personnel or workstations to minimize customer waiting and service cost Operations management Operations management is a narrow branch of the quantitative approach to management. It focuses on managing the process of transforming materials, labour, and capital into useful goods and/or services. The product outputs can be either goods or services; effective operations management is a concern for both manufacturing and service organizations.
Management information systems Management information systems (MIS) is the most recent subfield of the quantitative school. A management information system organizes past, present, and projected data from both internal and external sources and processes it into usable information, which it then makes available to man- agers at all organizational levels Contingency School of Management The contingency school of management can be summarized as an ? it all depends? approach. The appropriate management actions and approaches depend on the situation.
Managers with a contingency view use a flexible approach, draw on a variety of theories and experiences, and evaluate many options as they solve problems. Contingency management recognizes that there is no one best way to manage. In the contingency perspective, managers are faced with the task of determining which managerial approach is likely to be most effective in a given situation Quality School of Management The quality school of management is a comprehensive concept for leading and operating an organization, aimed at continually improving performance by focusing on customers while addressing the needs of all stakeholders.
In other words, this concept focuses on managing the total organization to deliver high quality to customers. The quality school of management considers the following in its theory: Organization makeup. Quality of goods and services. Employees working in teams. Developing openness and trust. Amoung these three theories ,the most important is the Quality school of management ,because it aims at gradual improvement keeping in view the customer requirement . It includes all good factors regarding improvement in an organisation. 2 . Discuss the 14 general principles of management given by Fayol.
Which principle do you think is the most important? Henri Fayol, a French mining engineer, developed 14 principles of management based on his management experiences. These principles provide modern-day managers with general guidelines on how a supervisor should organize her department and manage her staff. Although later research has created controversy over many of the following principles, they are still widely used in management theories. 1. Division of work: Division of work and specialization produces more and better work with the same effort. 2.
Authority and responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. A manager has official authority because of her position, as well as personal authority based on individual personality, intelligence, and experience. Authority creates responsibility. 3. Discipline: Obedience and respect within an organization are absolutely essential. Good discipline requires managers to apply sanctions whenever violations become apparent. 4. Unity of command: An employee should receive orders from only one superior. 5. Unity of direction: Organizational activities must have one central authority and one plan of action. . Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interests of one employee or group of employees are subordinate to the interests and goals of the organization. 7. Remuneration of personnel: Salaries — the price of services rendered by employees — should be fair and provide satisfaction both to the employee and employer. 8. Centralization: The objective of centralization is the best utilization of personnel. The degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of each organization. 9. Scalar chain: A chain of authority exists from the highest organizational authority to the lowest ranks. 0. Order: Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential . The right materials and the right employees are necessary for each organizational function and activity. 11. Equity: In organizations, equity is a combination of kindliness and justice. Both equity and equality of treatment should be considered when dealing with employees. 12. Stability of tenure of personnel: To attain the maximum productivity of personnel, a stable work force is needed. 13. Initiative: Thinking out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely strong motivator.
Zeal, energy, and initiative are desired at all levels of the organizational ladder. 14. Esprit de corps: Teamwork is fundamentally important to an organization. Work teams and extensive face-to-face verbal communication encourages teamwork. Among these principles I find the most important is Remuneration. All people work for money only. If an employ is happy with his wages he will compromise for everything else and all other factors will automatically come. 3.? Decision making is the most critical managerial task? .Discuss the above in the light of decision making steps?
Decision making and problem solving are on going processes of evaluating situations or problems, considering alternatives, making choices ,and following them up with the necessary actions. The entire decision-making process is dependent upon the right information being available to the right people at the right times. The decision-making process involves the following steps: Define the problem. Identify limiting factors. Develop potential alternatives. Analyse the alternatives. Select the best alternative. Implement the decision. Establish a control and evaluation system.
Define the problem The decision-making process begins when a manager identifies the real problem. The accurate definition of the problem affects all the steps that follow; if the problem is inaccurately defined, every step in the decision- making process will be based on an incorrect starting point. Identify limiting factors All managers want to make the best decisions. To do so, managers need to have the ideal resources — information, time, personnel, equipment, and supplies — and identify any limiting factors. Realistically, managers operate in an environment that normally doesn’t provide ideal resources.
Develop potential alternatives Time pressures frequently cause a manager to move forward after considering only the first or most obvious answers. However, successful problem solving requires thorough examination of the challenge, and a quick answer may not result in a permanent solution. Thus, a manager should think through and investigate several alternative solutions to a single problem before making a quick decision. Concentrate on the problem at hand. This rule keeps the discussion very specific and avoids the group’s tendency to address the events leading up to the current problem.
Analyse the alternatives : The purpose of this step is to decide the relative merits of each idea. Managers must identify the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution before making a final decision. Select the best alternative: After a manager has analysed all the alternatives, she must decide on the best one. The best alternative is the one that produces the most advantages and the fewest serious disadvantages. Thus decision making is the most critical managerial task as it involves all aspects about the problem and it gives the best possible solutions with minimum disadvantages and maximum advantages.
Executing a decision is not so tough as it involves all people and the work will be divided . But managers are paid to make correct decisions and it is most critical 4. Which party bears more responsibility in the communication process-sender , receiver or both . justify your answer? No function is more vital to management than communication. Communication is at the heart of every business activity; it is the thread that ties the actions of the individual or organization to its desired objectives. Communication is the way that employees share feelings, thoughts, wants, and needs. Without communication, organizations would not function.
If communication is diminished or hampered, the entire organization suffers. When communication is thorough, accurate, and timely, the organization tends to be vibrant and effective. Communication is central to the entire management process for four primary reasons: 1. Communication is a linking process of management. 2. Communication is the way managers conduct the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. 3. Communication is the heart of all organizations 4. Communication is the primary means by which people obtain and exchange information .
Decisions are often dependent upon the quality and quantity of the information received. If the information on which a decision is based is poor or incomplete, the decision will often be incorrect. The most time-consuming activity a manager engages in is communication. Information and communication represent power in organizations. The ability to communicate well, both orally and in writing, is a critical managerial skill and a foundation of effective leadership. Through communication, people exchange and share information with one another and influence one another’s attitudes, behaviors, and understandings.
Communication allows managers to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships, listen to others, and otherwise gain the information needed to create an inspirational workplace. No manager can handle conflict, negotiate successfully, and succeed at leadership without being a good communicator. The Communication Process The goal of communication is to convey information—and the understanding of that information—from one person or group to another. This communication process is divided into three basic components: A sender transmits a message through a channel to the receiver. Feedback The other important feature is the feedback cycle.
When two people interact, communication is rarely one-way only. When a person receives a message, she responds to it by giving a reply. Otherwise, the sender can’t know whether the other parties properly interpreted the message or how they reacted to it. Feedback is especially significant in management because a supervisor has to know how subordinates respond to directives and plans. The manager also needs to know how work is progressing and how employees feel about the general work situation . The critical factor in measuring the effectiveness of communication is common understanding.
Understanding exists when all parties involved have a mutual agreement as to not only the information, but also the meaning of the information. Effective communication, therefore, occurs when the intended message of the sender and the interpreted message of the receiver are one and the same. Although this should be the goal in any communication, it is not always achieved. The most efficient communication occurs at a minimum cost in terms of resources expended. Time, in particular, is an important resource in the communication process Communication and Interpersonal Skills However, efficient time-saving communications are not always effective.
A low-cost approach such as an e-mail note to a distribution list may save time, but it does not always result in everyone getting the same meaning from the message. Without opportunities to ask questions and clarify the message, erroneous interpretations are possible. In addition to a poor choice of communication method, other barriers to effective communication include noise and other physical distractions, language problems, and failure to recognize nonverbal signals. Sometimes communication is effective, but not efficient.
Oral communication skills Because a large part of a manager’s day is spent conversing with other managers and employees, the abilities to speak and listen are critical to success. In general, managers prefer to rely on oral communication because communication tends to be more complete and thorough when talking in person. In face-to-face interactions, a person can judge how the other party is reacting, get immediate feedback, and answer questions. In general, people tend to assume that talking to someone directly is more credible than receiving a written message.
Face-to-face communication permits not only the exchange of words, but also the opportunity to see the nonverbal communication. Written communication skills Written communication has several advantages. First, it provides a record for referral and follow-up. Second, written communication is an inexpensive means of providing identical messages to a large number of people. The major limitation of written communication is that the sender does not know how or if the communication is received unless a reply is required. Thus communication plays a vital role in the managerial process of a company.
It involves both sender and receiver ,and role of both of them are important. But among them one who bears more responsibility is the sender, because he is the person who originates the message and he bears the whole responsibility of the actions taken by different people on that message. 5.? planning is charting the future course of action at present? Do you agree? Discuss the advantage of planning as a management process. Of the five management functions — planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling — planning is the most fundamental.
All other functions stem from planning. However, planning doesn’t always get the attention that it deserves; when it does, many managers discover that the planning process isn’t as easy as they thought it would be — or that even the best-laid plans can go awry. Before a manager can tackle any of the other functions, he or she must first devise a plan. A plan is a blueprint for goal achievement that specifies the necessary resource allocations, schedules, tasks, and other actions. A goal is a desired future state that the organization attempts to realize.
Goals are important because an organization exists for a purpose, and goals define and state that purposeThe word planning means determining the organization’s goals and defining the means for achieving them. Planning allows managers the opportunity to adjust to the environment instead of merely reacting to it. Planning increases the possibility of survival in business by actively anticipating and managing the risks that may occur in the future. In short, planning is preparing for tomorrow, today. It also answers six basic questions in regard to any activity: What needs to be accomplished?
When is the deadline? Where will this be done? Who will be responsible for it? How will it get done? How much time, energy, and resources are required to accomplish this goal? Recognizing the Advantages of Planning The advantages of planning are numerous. Planning fulfills the following objectives: Gives an organization a sense of direction. Focuses attention on objectives and results. Establishes a basis for teamwork. Helps anticipate problems and cope with change. Provides guidelines for decision making.
Planning is primary, because without knowing what an organization wants to accomplish, management can’t intelligently undertake any of the other basic managerial activities: organizing,staffing, leading, and/or controlling. Planning is a crucial activity, for it designs the map that lays the ground work for the other functions. The plan itself specifies what should be done, by whom, where, when, and how. Planning precedes all other functions -All plans must contribute to purpose and objectives. It is all pervasive activity -all levels of managers have to do planning.
Plans are effective if they achieve their purpose at a reasonable cost (in terms of time and money). Planning has to be systematic to ensures a timely, orderly, and cost-effective process to achieve specific objectives. Planning should involve everyone – centralized planning occurs when responsibility rests with top- level executives. Decentralized planning occurs when responsibilities rest with managers and workers who actually execute the tasks. Benefits of Planning: Planning can be very beneficial in four major areas: Coordination of Effort Preparation for Change ,Development of Performance Standards ,Development of Managers 1.
Integrated, constant and purposeful action is more easily achieved. All efforts are directed towards desired objectives or results. Unproductive work and waste of resources can be minimized. Through planning managers can relate decisions to each other and to goals of the enterprise. 2. Planning enables a company to be competitive with other rivals. Progressive management likes to be proactive rather than reactive. 3. Through planning adverse situations can be anticipated and mistakes or delays avoided. Trouble can be more often easily corrected in its earlier stages than after a crisis “Forewarned is forearmed”. 4.
Planning helps to plan for changes and also helps in managing change effectively. 5. Planning leads to systematic and thorough investigation of alternative methods. 6. Plans are based on adequate information of the past, present and intelligent forecasting of the future. 7. Plans give control standards. 8. Planning facilitates effective delegation of authority and removes communication difficulties . . ASSIGNMENT- B ADL-01 : PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MANAGEMENT 1. Management can be defined as “a process of bringing about improvement in knowledge, skill habitand attitudes of the employees ‘in an organization”. Discuss. .
ANS:- Management is universal in modern industrial world. Every organization requires the making of decisions, the coordination of activities, handling of people, and the evaluation of the performance directed towards organizational objectives. Specialization and increase in the scale of operations have increased the importance of management. Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups accomplish effectively selected aims. If we expand this definition we understanding that: • Management is present in any kind of organization (business or non-business). • Its aim is to create a surplus, i. e. , management is concerned with productivity which is measured through effectiveness and efficiency. • A manager works in coordination with both the internal and external environment. It is essentially decision making under various constraints. • It is an integrated as well as continuous process. It is use of means to accomplish given ends : For achieving the objectives the Managers have to assume responsibility, achieve a balance among competing (and often conflicting) goals, and have to be conceptual thinkers.
The term management is often used to refer to a group of managerial personnel of an enterprise. Sometimes, this term is used as a way of referring to the process of managing. On other occasions it is used as a substantive to describe the subject, the body of knowledge and practice as a whole, the discipline. Strictly speaking, management is a functional concept and does not include persons who practice management. Such persons are designated as Managers, Executives, etc. However, in our daily transaction we generally include the practitioners within the scope of this term. The managerial process is a complex social activity.
It is a process because it comprises of a series of actions that lead to accomplishment of objectives. It is known as a social process because these actions are concerned with relations between people, i. e. , inter-personal relationship. It is a continuous process, there is always fresh minds to stimulate, newer area and approaches to explore, and ever changing situations to tackle. Management is a mental or intellectual process involving thought, judgement and decision, the fundamental aim being achievement of certain objectives. Technological development has continuously changed the setting of management.
However, the chief characteristics of management are the integration and application of the knowledge and analytical approaches developed by numerous disciplines. This involves: 1. Formation of policy and its translation into plans, 2. Execution and implementation of plans, and 3. Exercising administrative control over the plans. Utilisation of resources has been one of the most common and yet perhaps the most complex management activity. Maximum return and utility from limited available resources has been the main aim of any manager. Traditionally, only three factors of production were recognised i. . , Man, Machine, and Material. However, with the development of thought, a fourth factor of production was recognised, in the absence of which the other three factors could be rendered useless. This fourth vital factor of production was entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur could be a person having his own resources or a custodian of someone else’s resources, organising it with a view to attain maximum input. The characteristics of a good manager may be described in broad terms as initiative, intelli- gence, judgement, dependability, integrity, perseverance, and so on.
Thus, management can also be defined as a process of bringing about improvement in knowledge, skill, habits, and attitudes of the employees in an organization. In other words it refers to development of people in the organization. Management involves improvement in knowledge factors, attitude factors, and ability factors of the employee in an organization. • Knowledge factors refer to ideas, concepts, or principles that are conscious, able to be expressed, and are accepted because they are subject to logical proof. Attitude factors relates to those beliefs, feelings, desires, and values that may be based on emotions and may not be subject to conscious verbalization. interest in ones work, desire to accept responsibilities, respect for the dignity of one’s associates, and desire for creative contribution are some of the attitude factors. • Ability factors are too often treated as being unaffected by environment. Skill, art, judgement and wisdom are the four most important ability factors required in management. Although these are abstract, but nevertheless they can be developed and sharpened through practice . Which are the various types of plans you are familiar with? Discuss the steps involved in the planning process. Types of Planning : Type of planning is determined by three factors, namely – Scope (The range of activities covered), Time frame (the period covered by the plan) and Level of Detail (the specificity of the plan). Depending upon these factors, planning could be: 1. Strategic planning – comprehensive, long-term, and relatively general planning. 2. Operational planning – focused, short-term, and specific planning. 3.
Tactical planning – more narrow, intermediate-term planning, more specific than strategic planning, but not as narrow as operational planning. Types of Plans : As opposed to the various types of planning, different types of plans could be: 1. Purpose or Mission – 1. Basic function assigned by society to the organization: 2. Objectives / Goals – Ends towards which activity is aimed and end point of the organization. 3. Strategies – Broad areas of an enterprise operation, normally its in light of competitors. The firm has to decide on its growth goal and desired profitability. Form a framework for guiding, thinking and action. 4.
Policies – General statements that guide decision-making. Policies encourage discretion and initiative within limits. 5. Procedures – Establish a required method of handling future activities, they are guides to action. 6. Rules – Specific required action, allowing no discretion. 7. Programs – Complex of goals, policies, procedures, rules, tasks, assignments steps to be taken, resources to be employed and other elements necessary. 8. Budget – Statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms i. e. , numerical program Steps in the Planning Process: Planning process involves four steps and then gives way to the implementation phase.
These steps are: 1. Assess Current Conditions: Determine the current situation, including examination of re- sources, market trends, economic indicators, and competitors. 2. Determining Goals and Objectives: Goals are future states or conditions that contribute to the fulfilment of the organization’s mission. Objectives are short-term, specific, measurable targets that must be reached to accomplish organizational goals. 3. Establishing an Action Plan: An action plan is a specific set of behavior that will lead to the attainment of an objective. 4. Allocate Resources: Resources include people, money, and time.
TFP – (Total Factor Productivity) is a measure of a firm’s effectiveness in using its resources to create product values. A budget is a predetermined amount of resources allocated to an activity which includes budgeting organizational resources for each step in the process. 5. Implementation: The commitment of organizational resources through the delegation of tasks, objective- driven actions, and feedback of data. 6. Control the Implementation: The continuous management of plans to ensure that they meet objectives in the correct time horizon 3. Departmentalization is grouping activities and people into departments.
Which are the various forms seen in the industry? DEPARTMENTALIZATION After reviewing the plans, usually the first step in the organizing process is departmentalization. Once jobs have been classified through work specialization, they are grouped so those common tasks can be coordinated. Departmentalization is the basis on which work or individuals are grouped into manageable units. Departmentalization by simple numbers(Only useful at the lowest level). 1. Departmentalization by time (Very old systems -shifts seen in organizations where normal working day does not suffice e. . , Hospitals) 2. Departmentalization by enterprise function (Grouping of activities in accordance with the functions of an enterprise -example -Production, selling, financing etc. ). 3. Functional Departmentalization (It is the most widely employed basis for organizing activities and is at present seen in almost every enterprise). 4. Departmentalization by territory (Based on geographical territories). 5. Customer Departmentalization (Grouping of activities to reflect a primary interest in customers is common in services industries). 6.
Process Departmentalization (Seen in manufacturing firms). 7. Product Departmentalization (In multi-line large-scale enterprises). Coordination may be achieved through rules, procedures, planning, organizational hierarchy, personal contacts and sometimes through the Liaison department CASE STUDY NO COMMISSIONS ALLOWED When Mr. Ram Bansal took over the handbag department at RK & Company New Delhi, he established several important goals for the department. One was to increase sales without increasing the number of salespeople or the way they were paid.
Unlike some retail supervisors, Mr. Bansal was not in a position to use commissions to reward improved performance. All his employees were paid a straight wage without commissions and all members of the staff were union led. He also wanted to improve customer service and employee satisfaction. This arrangement offered few motivational options and had a negative effect on employee attitudes. In other departments of the company, customers were often shown a dressing room “cop” who asked how many garments were included and gave them the appropriately coloured tag
The original sales clerk rarely appeared for additional customer service. Many sales people in thecompany were painfully aware of the lack of personal commitment to their job and customers. One employee commented, “There’s a lot of talk about increasing customers. ” Mr. Bansalknew he had to make some changes in order to improve the sales production in the department. His firststep was to give fulltime employees their own counter area and their own line of merchandise. He also increased the responsibility of the sales staff for managing their own inventory and their own line of merchandise.
Any sales person who needed information was encouraged to off the buying staff suggestions, was encouraged to talk with buyer of handbags. Previously, the sales staff had felt they were not supposed to talk to buyers. Every week, Mr. Bansal brings the staff together for a meeting. At these meetings, he emphasizes the importance of customer service ‘and reviews any change in departmental policies and procedures. He also encourages employees to discuss problems and ask questions. These meetings provide Mr. Bansal with an opportunity to publicly recognise the accomplishments of employees 1. What motivational need did Mr.
Bansal satisfy for his fulltime employees? Mr. Bansal gave fulltime employees their own counter area & their own line of merchandise. He also increased the responsibility of the sales staff for managing their own inventory & their own line of merchandise. So he gave them RECOGNITION & RESPONSIBILITY. He gave them their own counter area and their own line of merchandise. He increased responsibility of staff by: Making them to manage their own inventory, and Manage their own line of merchandise. Sales person were allowed to talk directly to the buying staff and the customers regarding for any additional information.
Mr. Bansal developed intrinsic or true work motivation i. e. sales person were in a position where they can shape their own social environment. True creativity or productivity comes into being only when learning is free from external constraints. Employees were able to make decisions on what they did everyday When a person is allowed to exercise choice with respect to some given activity, it could be that the person’s sense of self-determination is enhanced not only in relation to that activity, but that there is an overall increase in his sense of personal autonomy. . Discuss these needs with reference to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs ANS:- Mr. Bansal gave Self – actualization & Esteem needs to employees by changing the working condition , quality of supervision, interpersonal relation, company policies, quality of policy. Which are called as META needs or growth needs as per Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Abraham Maslow Developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50’s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development . Mr. Bansal achieved significant productivity gains because of a positive change in employee’s attitudes. What motivational strategies did he use to achieve this success? Mr. Bansal observed the working conditions & policies & administrative practices & Supervision hygiene or dissatisfiers, Mr. Bansal changed the policies & procedures of departmental store, Also he discuss with employees about their problem, he started weekly meeting with employees, through which he recognize the accomplishments of employees. He gave them their own counter area and their own line of merchandise. • He increased responsibility of staff by: o Making them to manage their own inventory, and o Manage their own line of merchandise. • Encouraged effective communication from his side to sales person regarding goals and departmental polices. From Sales person to himself regarding any problem or query, hence emphasizing organizational interests to all time and again . • Publicly recognized achievements of sales person in meetings which boosts moral of sales person and further motivates them to work better. Sales person were allowed to talk directly to the buying staff and the customers regarding for any additional information ASSIGNMENT C 1. (d ) 2. (d ) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (d) 10. (d) 11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (b) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16. (b) 17. (c) 18. (d) 19. (c) 20. (d) 21. (d) 22. (c) 23. (b) 24. (b) 25. (c) 26. (b) 27. (d) 28. (d) 29. (b) 30. (d) 31. (d) 32. (d) 33. (d) 34. (d) 35. (b) 36. (d) 37. (d) 38. (d) 39. (d) 40. (d)