Matang can be found anywhere as in

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Matang Wildlife Centre (MWC) is a tropical forest in southern part of Sarawak. The area is covered by 79 hectares of mixed Dipterocarp forest and lowland forest. The MWC forest for the conservation of nature that protects the flora and fauna. The conservation of MWC also as a secondary and education for research and collecting sample. The humidity and moisture of MWC tropical forest are the favourable conditions to one of the communities which are fungi as a most diverse organism. Mushroom is a type of fungi that grows and feeds on the dead decaying matter, dead wood and leaves on the forest floor. Usually, it’s found that fungi as saprophyte which is important recycling carbon, nitrogen and essential mineral nutrient.

 

Endophytes consist of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. Endophytic fungi can be found in plant healthy tissues such as leaves, stem, roots and other parts of the plant. They provide defence for a plant from herbivores, increase plant resistance and health, enhancing plant growth, increasing plant fitness, strengthening plant tolerances to abiotic and biotic stresses, and promoting the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants.

 

Fungi are more related to animal compared to plants as they don’t have chloroplast to do photosynthesis. Most fungi are saprophytic which they feed on the decayed matter. Fungi can be found anywhere as in soils, plant matters and can be found within different temperature ranges. As fungi feed on the decayed matter, they become major important role as decomposer for the environment but some of them can be disastrous or become disease towards other living things such as plants, animal and also humans.Most fungi live on the substrate upon which they feed. Numerous hyphae penetrate the wood, cheese, soil, or flesh in which they are growing. The hyphae secrete digestive enzymes that break down the substrate, enabling the fungus to absorb the nutrients contained in the substrate. There are four major groups of fungi, Zygomycota, Ascomycota (sac fungi), Basidiomycota (club fungi) and Chytridiomycota.

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The fungal group Zygomycota is most frequently encountered as common bread moulds, although both freshwater and marine species exist. Most of these live on decaying plant and animal matter found on the substrate. Aquatic species are primarily found in sediments or on algae, but some species are also free floating. A few are found attached to aquatic animals or on decaying leaves. Some are parasites of plants, insects, or small soil animals, while others cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. They are usually recognized by their profuse, rapidly growing hyphae, but some exhibit a unicellular, yeast-like form of growth. Asexual reproduction is by means of spores produced in sporangia borne on the hyphae. Zygomycota got their name from the production of thick-walled sexual structures called zygosporangia, which can remain dormant for long periods.

 

Ascomycetes are the causes of a number of serious plant diseases.This group is also comprised of the yeasts used in the production of beer, wine and bread. With the exception of unicellular yeasts, the Ascomycetes are filamentous during development and their hyphae are septate (divided into cells).

 

Reproduction is usually by the formation of specialized spores, called conidia, borne at the tips of hyphae in specialized structures (conidiophores).Aquatic fungi in this group are predominantly found on submerged wood, but others are free-floating or found on sediments and algae.

    Basidiomycetes play a key role in the environment as decomposers of plant litter. They are distinguished from other fungi by their production of basidiospores, which are borne outside a club-shaped, spore-producing structure called a basidium. This group is poorly represented in the aquatic environment. There are very few species of freshwater species known and the majority of marine species are free- floating with a couple of lignicolous (found on wood) species.

The Chytrid fungi are characterised by their asexual state, a zoospore (motile) with a single whiplash flagellum oriented and located posteriorly. The zoospore is formed in a sporangium. Zoospores are released through an opening in the wall, and their release usually indicates the death of the thallus.

 

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