Manipulation can take many forms, some say that manipulation is the idea of intentionally changing an object. For example if you were to mold a stick figure out of clay, you would be manipulating the clay as you change it intentionally. However I plan to look into a more psychological form of this manipulation, the action of intentionally changing someone’s thoughts feeling or influencing their actions. Essentially this manipulation is very similar to that of an object. With the sole exception that it reaches into far more complicated areas due to the fact that object being manipulated has a mind of its own, and therefore its own ideas. In contradiction we have to consider how these initial ideas were formed, and if these too are the results of manipulation. Due to a seemingly vast lack of a conclusive and informed text on this topic, I have decided to provide one.Topic 1: Our Susceptibility to manipulation from the outside world and the people closest to us.The first topic that we have to explore, in order to define where the idea of where manipulation comes from and how we are affected by it is: how susceptible we are to it. The question is how do we measure the susceptibility of humans to manipulation; what can we compare it to? Joel Rudinow (1978) said that ‘most people distinguish between manipulation and attempted manipulation, and between feeling and being manipulated. One can attempt to manipulate without succeeding, and one can feel manipulated without having been manipulated.’ Thus suggesting that manipulation is more of a perceptive matter. Are you really being manipulated if you consciously agree to something, knowing what it was? Well, we often influence others with our actions. For example: If I was on the way home from school together with my friend who lived next door, an decided to stop at an ice cream store to buy some ice cream. My friend sees me buying ice cream and buys some too. Did he freely choose to buy ice cream or had I manipulated him into buying it? We can carry this idea of the people around us manipulating or influencing our decisions forwards, by implementing it into our past. From the moment we were born, we have people around us constantly in the form of parents or a guardian. These people then influence (which we defined as a form of manipulation) until we are 18. So to determine if we are truly our own character and personality or if it came from our closest surroundings. The easiest way to do so is to look at individual cases, how similar are people (mentally) to their parents. I moved onto the next topic here as I could not find a source yet.———————————————————————————————————————————–Topic 2: Direct manipulationNeed to change this———————————————————————————————————————————–Topic 3: indirect manipulationNeed to change this———————————————————————————————————————————–Topic 4: Propaganda in WW2Propaganda is ‘information, ideas, opinions, or images, often only giving one part of an argument, that are broadcast, published, or in some other way spread with the intention of influencing people’s opinions'( To divulge deeper into the topic that is propaganda, we will look back at perhaps one of the most successful uses of the media to manipulate. I am of course referring to world war two. In world war two shortly after Hitler was announced chancellor, ‘He named Joseph Goebbels, his trusted friend and colleague to the key post of minister for public enlightenment and propaganda.'( Joseph Goebbels job was to present and illustrate Hitler and his beliefs to the public in the most favorable way possible. In doing so Goebbel took total control of the media in germany by driving jewish journalism and other media such as actors, musicians and artists into bankruptcy; by promoting his ‘National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party’ and their beliefs. From this we can take away that in order to truly make propaganda effective, there can be no one to dispute it or even question it. We see this in today’s world, as a countless number of propaganda are immediately discredited by the international media or were never believed due to the education we receive from a young age. Which brings me to my second point which we can take away from the second world war; to truly convince and manipulate a society, one must control their entire life. This is demonstrated in the second world war through the use of ‘Hitler’s Youth’. Hitler’s Youth was a key part into creating a society that truly followed Hitler’s Ideology. If you imagine that your entire life, you were taught that water is bad for you. Although this may be a simple example, if you could never prove the statement wrong and you had no reason to believe that it was; why would you dispute it? So they key was to have a society that didn’t know any different or that had no reason to believe otherwise, suggesting that doubt would be the leading cause to failing manipulation. Surely if there was no doubt there would be no failure right? Although this may be true, complete removal of doubt and awareness is basically impossible, and arguably the reason Hitler lost the war. If no one would have defected from Germany, or fought against the Nazi ideology, surely the dream of complete world domination would be complete. Just think about it like this: if you convinced every living person on the planet that you were a God, who would stop you from being one? This very question could explain Hitler’s motive to kill or remove the Jewish belief from his society all together, as they were the only possible influence of doubt. Meeting them would have proven to others that they were just people too and were no different to everyone else in society. However determining Hitler’s motives and what drove him to do what he did, is not why we are here. In contradiction, it does prove that propaganda can be used incredibly effectively to sway entire nations. Weather the propaganda’s immense effect during the world war was due to a combination of psychological factors, such as fear or willingness to believe due to the recent great depression, is difficult to determine. Coming back to the idea that total control of all media influences are important, is further demonstrated in the second world war, when ‘Goebbels organized “The Soviet Paradise,” a large Nazi propaganda show that was exhibited in Berlin. Its purpose was to bolster the resolve of the German people by exposing the chicanery of Jewish Bolsheviks. On May 18, Herbert Baum (1912-42), a Berlin-based German-Jewish Resistance leader, and his accomplices partly demolished the exhibition by setting it on fire.'( However, even though the Berlin based resistance managed to set the exhibition on fire, the information of this event, never made it to the news, or any form of media. This was greatly due to Goebbels great influence on the local media and partially due to the fear of what might happen if the media did report this. Effectively, during the second world war Goebbels managed to create, what one could only describe as a media bubble, filled with vile propaganda.——————————————————————————————————————————- New Topic: Manipulation through propaganda todayTo truly understand the conditions necessary for propaganda to successfully manipulate us we have to look at today’s propaganda. Nowadays we can find propaganda in a large variety of different sources, such as: manipulative advertisement, political messages, opinionated articles. To begin with we will take a look at manipulative advertising. Manipulative advertising today is a well discussed issue that often lays focus on beauty or body image advertising. Adverts that are apparently manipulating people into thinking: if you buy this, you will look like this. Or: if you do this, you will get this. Etc. However in the previous topic, we found that for propaganda to be effective, the entire society had to believe it with no doubt, and no feasible way to prove it. Surely after falling for one of these adverts, we would never fall for one again. So what has changed since the second world war? Advertisers have become more subtle in their manipulation ( These major firms have begun using small psychological tricks such as mirror neurons to influence our wants or even what we perceive as our needs. ‘Mirror neurons are cells in your brain that fire when you both act and watch someone else perform the same act. When you watch someone throw a ball, the same neurons in your brain that make you throw a ball, parts of your planning and motor cortex, are activated. It’s as if your brain thinks you are throwing the ball.'(Walter Chen) This then

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