Life in sunlight, they glow with a

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Life on Earth is forever changing, may it be due to environmental changes or even man made changes. Change is the only thing that has not changed in our world. But, even with this cycle of modification, there is one specie that is been able to stand tall even today, and that is jellyfish. Jellyfish may seem like a common specie when you look at them in an aquarium, but in actuality, these animals are the oldest animals to have lived. This is not looked at by age, but actually how long they have been present in our ecosystem. The ocean’s most interecruit animal is what we are looking at today. How are these animals able to withstand the ever changing circumstances of our planet for so long? To answer this question we will be looking at homeostasis, genetics, and biochemistry. The protein is naturally expressed in the North American jellyfish Aequorea victoria. These are jellyfish that are found in cold waters of the north pacific. GFP or Green fluorescent protein works by absorbing energy from blue light in the environment and emitting a green glow in response. Solutions of purified GFP look yellow under typical room lights, but when taken outdoors in sunlight, they glow with a bright green color. The protein absorbs ultraviolet light from the sunlight, and then emits it as lower-energy green light. This may be used as a defensive tactic to ward off predators in a last resort to escape or show that they may be poisonous GFP, on the other hand, has all of its own light handling machinery built in, constructed using only amino acids. It has a special sequence of three amino acids: serine-tyrosine-glycine (sometimes, the serine is replaced by the similar threonine). When the protein chain folds, this short segment is buried deep inside the protein. Then, several chemical transformations occur: the glycine forms a chemical bond with the serine, forming a new closed ring, which then spontaneously dehydrates. Finally, over the course of an hour or so, oxygen from the surrounding environment attacks a bond in the tyrosine, forming a new double bond and creating the fluorescent chromophore. Since GFP makes its own chromophore, it is perfect for genetic engineering.The protein chain forms a cylindrical can (shown in blue), with one portion of the strand threading straight through the middle (shown in green). The chromophore is found right in the middle of the can, totally shielded from the surrounding environment. This shielding is essential for the fluorescence. The jostling water molecules would normally rob the chromophore of its energy once it absorbs a photon. But inside the protein, it is protected, releasing the energy instead as a slightly less energetic photon of light. The chromophore (shown in the close-up on the right) forms spontaneously from three amino acids in the protein chain: a glycine, a tyrosine and a threonine (or serine). Notice how the glycine and the threonine have formed a new bond, creating an unusual five-membered ring.There is a possibility that Jellyfish are the oldest and the most successful organism on earth. It has been determined that Jellyfish have lived over 500 to 700 million years ago, longer than any other multiorgan species.Jellyfish are thriving during temperature and pH changes within the oceans. There are various types of Jellyfish today and this may be the reason for their adaptability and long life.Jellyfish are among the few metazoans that have mtDNA that is different from traditional structures. For instance, cubozoa have mitochondrial genomes that are segmented into several linear molecules. On the other hand, staurozoans, scyphozoans and many hydrozoans have linear monomeric mtDNA. Scientists have also found that although their genomes architectures such as telomeres, the mtDNA sequences for jellyfish found in three distinct locations were not the same, varying from 2.5% to 10 % at synonymous sites. The A. moseri mtDNA is in the upper extreme of documented mtDNA, making it one of the most genetically diverse eukaryotic genomes to be observed so far. This can explain why there are many genetic viarities in jellyfish populations, from box jellyfish that are immortal to deep sea jellyfish that only come to the service to breed.



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