Kidney lack of sleep apnea. If the whole

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Kidney failure is a real problem within America, and
other parts of the world as well. It is a problem that does not have a lot of
research and there is not much known about it as it has to deal with the presence
of a gene called APOL1. APOL1 stands for apolipoprotein 1, which is a minor
apoprotein component of high density lipoprotein. This protein is synthesized
in the liver and found in arterial tissue. APOL1 synthesized with a haptoglobin
related protein to circulate blood, and has a main role in inflammatory
responses. The APOL1 gene is present in people of African descent mostly. Trypanosomal
illness is caused by infection of the Trypanosomal brucei. When trypanosomes
take in APOL1 through endocytosis, pores are formed on the membranes of lysosomes
of the trypanosomes, which work as channels as chloride ions influx, causing
swelling of the lysosomes and then eventually causes lysis of the trypanosomes.
The presence of APOL1 creates immunity to trypanosomal illness. 4 APOL1 also
has links to kidney disease. When the gene is present so is pore formation, cellular injury, and programmed cell death in
renal injury. The disease is mainly present in African ancestry as well, “The
United States Renal Data System Report demonstrates a consistent, yearly
increase in the incidence of end-stage kidney disease
(ESKD) among individuals of African ancestry that is 3.5- to 5-fold that of
individuals of European ancestry” 1. The issue here is that people who have
the APOL1 gene, do not have problems with sleep apnea however they acquire the
kidney disease. The question is how do we solve the kidney disease problem
while retaining the lack of sleep apnea. If the whole APOL1 gene was to be
replaced it would knock out the kidney disease however the sleep apnea would
start to become a problem. Possible solutions would have to target the symptoms
of the kidney disease, or target the gene directly. It is hard to understand as there is not much research
being done on this, and there is no cure for this kidney disease epidemic.


Categories: United States


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