Jürgen Through its structure, autonomy and responsibility Mündigkeit
Jürgen Habermas born 1929 has proposed a theory ‘The Sociology of Communicative Action’. Habermas believes communicative actions is the key to in being able to create a democracy that can help formal systems for example the welfare state. ‘What raises us out of nature is the only thing whose nature we can know: language. Through its structure, autonomy and responsibility Mündigkeit are posited for us. Our first sentence expresses unequivocally the intention of universal and unconstrained consensus.’ (Jürgen Habermas (1987 1968p.314)
One of Habermas work is ‘The Theory of Communicative Actions: Reason and the Rationalization of Society and The Theory of Communicative Actions: Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason.’. This piece of writing is based around language and the commutation between capable speakers. Habermas suggest that those who have conversations are more likely to be able to build rationality, validation of the truth and then disapprove of the formal structures or institutions in society. He believed the democratic process has become stronger through communicative actions. A key thing about Habermas and his theory of communication actions is that his ideas and methodologies are still prominent and one of the key aspects.
Habermas describes the whole world as a whole, he believes that the knowledge of nature, history, or society is no longer sufficient. There have been various advances in sciences so any approaches towards philosophy have been over tuned and diminished even though philosophy constructs important and evident thesis about the world we live in. However, a problem Habermas recognises is the subjugation of rationality to our societies formal systems as Weber would state ‘bureaucracies.’ Rationality is simply influential and served as a purposeful tool in which enables societies formal system to function as its main priority. Instrumental rationality serves formal system by gaining an understanding through objectifying nature and individuals. To form a critical understanding for each other and the world we must be able to question societies formal systems as different forms of rationality should exist.
Habermas scrutinises rationality on the bases of the philosophical formation. it cannot be viewed as self-sufficient discipline. Habermas criticises some elements from the Marxists theory, according to Habermas, they key to Marx ideology was incorporating the idealistic phsi
Habermas communicative action has reason within in language compared to Marx and Hegel. He states that philosophy cannot overpower in the world, also in the world of sciences. He suggests that philosophy should be considered a big part in the foundation of science. He suggests it ‘could take science, religion, morality, politics or art up against the bar of reason’. (Nielsen, 1993. p.117).
According to Habermas , modern rationality is extremely vague and completely misunderstood. (Bernstein, 1989)