Introduction: to other cells outside their lineage, such

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Introduction:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal Demyelinating disease of
the central nervous system (CNS) which can lead to sever physical and cognitive
disability and neurological defects (1). Damage to this myelin sheath protecting the nerve cells in the
brain and spinal cord progresses to damage or destruction of the axons (nerve
fibers) over time leading to irreversible neurodegeneration explaining the
progression of the disease and the increase in disability (2).

Unfortunately, there is no cure for MS and current remedies only
help in alleviating the symptoms and halting the immune attack (3). But Stem cell therapies offers a new hope for treatment of such
neurological diseases, as stem cells was efficiently proven to differentiate
effectively into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo (4) and secretes neurotrophic factors having immunomodulatory effects
preventing further damage and creating a regenerative microenvironment for
remyelination (5). Based on these results, several small pilot clinical trials in
subjects with advanced MS have demonstrated that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)
administration is safe and provided an early signal of clinical effectiveness (6).

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Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) is a population of MSCs which
have a much higher frequency in the adipose tissue than in bone marrow
(approximately 500-fold more). Moreover, ADSCs can be harvested by minimally
invasive procedures that should facilitate their use in cell transplantation
(Tsuji, Rubin, & Marra, 2014). These cells are capable to differentiate to
other cells outside their lineage, such as neural progenitors and
oligodendrocytes. Moreover, ADSCs through paracrine effects are able to promote
survival and proliferation of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells which
leading to further the process of remyelination. Another relevant finding of
previous study was that a high percentage of ADSCs which transplant in rat
model of MS, expressed Olig2 and MBP that are special markers of oligodendrocyte
(7,8). Therefore, ADSCs transplantation can induce nerve repair and
provide a practical way for remyelination in neurodegenerative diseases.

In order to maximize the cellular proliferation efficiency of
ADSCs, low level laser irradiation was used to activate the cells. Laser
irradiation at different intensities has been recognized to inhibit and/or
stimulate cellular processes. Recent findings suggest that at the cellular
level, laser energy of a particular wavelength can initiate signaling cascades,
such as those that promote cellular proliferation (Mvula, Moore, &
Abrahamse, 2010).

While administration of ex vivo culture-expanded stem cells has
been used to study immunosuppressive mechanisms in multiple models of
autoimmune diseases, less is known about the uncultured, nonexpanded stromal
vascular fraction (SVF)-based therapy. The SVF is composed of a heterogeneous
population of cells and has been used clinically to treat acute and chronic
diseases, alleviating symptoms in a range of tissues and organs (Blaber et al.,
2012). Equine and canine studies demonstrating anti-inflammatory and
regenerative effects of non-expanded SVF cells have yielded promising results
(Abdallah, Shamaa, El-Tookhy, & Abd El-Mottaleb, 2015).

the ability of human SVF cells was compared with culture expanded
ADSCs and bone-derived marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as a treatment of myelin
oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35–55)-induced experimental autoimmune
encephalitis in mice, a model of MS. The data indicated that intraperitoneal
administration of all cell types significantly ameliorates the severity of
disease. Furthermore, the data also demonstrated, for the first time, that the
SVF was as effective as the more commonly cultured BMSCs and ADSCs in an MS
model (9).

The aim of this
work is the histological evaluation of the transplantation of non-expanded
Laser activated Adipose derived SVF in a Dog Model of Toxin induced MS.

 

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