Introduction: qualitative development. Qualitative development happened through
A lot of time when I am studying I felt like I am bored that I can’t focus so I start to listen to music while I am studying and it got worse even though most of the time I got more focus so I decided to research over is it better studying with music or without it through using psychology researcher such as
Olson at 1977, he in that time period has discussed the potential of the level of processing theory which is done by Craik and Lockhart talking about the understanding of this important process of recall memory is importantly Information where memory is used to be a function for the type of cognitive process where the exposure happened in the process which stimulus remembered on how brain train or structured for word and number
processing theory combines the component that needed by both quantitative and qualitative development. Qualitative development happened through the system unify within the new program for information storage and retrieval, developing representational abilities (such as the usage that is projected of that language to represent concepts), or that can be represented as obtaining problem-solving rules that is given by Miller, 2011). increase the base of knowledge or the ability to remember word or information that avaiabl in working memory are examples of quantitative changes, as well as the improvement in the power of connectivity between cognitive affiliation
in Craik experiment, they wanted to test whether the level of processing on how we remember things or information that given. By a technique that is called “depth of processing”, by using that information now, we can know or understand the way of how a person thinks about a piece of meal of information that given such as, a shallow level of remembering over a word would be to skim over a sentence and to understand the sentence without dwelling on the individual word. In this way, we might already understand the meaning of the word, but only to understand it in the sentence that is available. A dipper level of understanding , on the other hand, we might need to look at the word by itself, outside of a sentence that is given and to think of what the word means; maybe even what other words match with it. This way, we are also more likely to remember it.
A further study “investigating the effects of deep and shallow processing on memory recall” is by Craik & Tulving (1975).
“To investigate how deep and shallow processing effect how memory work or remember
Participants shown a collection of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions, where they must think deeply about it and remember it.
Participants were then given 60 words by three time to remember and write what they remember
They needed to take the original words from the 180 words.
Participants answered more words that they remembered or they knew at the first time or before the experiment occurred than something that they really read
There is a process between the processed words involve deep processing which results in more accurate recall.
This experiment itself categorized as a Laboratory experiment. There is a strict control over variables in the experiment. The researcher also able to determine a cause-effect relationship of remember
Real life applications
Craik and lockhart ideas usually have tons of experiment to use. Inside of the experiment content what researcher categorized as brain is working in the process of remembering the information or the words that is given, that actually explain how every people have different abilities or skill that they have not like the other based on this research which more need deeper of thinking
Lacks of ecological validity because of the task itself can be seems to be unrealistic; the task does not commonly used on a daily life activities
However, recent studies have clarified this point – it appears that deeper coding produces better retention because it is more elaborate. Elaborative encoding enriches the memory for remember and see an item by activating many aspects of its meaning and linking it into the pre-existing network of semantic associations.
Later research indicated that processing is more complex and varied than the levels of processing theory suggests. In other words, there is more to processing than depth and elaboration.
Another problem is the varieties of the participants in the experiment, the participant have different skills to accomplish the task that is given by the researcher and their individuals type of processing and the stamina and the time that was spent on the processing likely to be different for each participants. By deeper time that is used for each type of processing surely different and can be varieties because deeper processing will take more effort and time to finish so it is difficult to know which factor will affecting the result
The level of processing theory is focusing on the processes that involved in memory, and level of processing usually ignores the structures.
Inspired by Craik and Tulving
Aim: to know how much or many word and pictures that they can describe with some background distraction
Research question: to what extend noise affecting the ability of remembering?
Hypothesis: the one without the the background sound will make better score than the
Participants: 20 participants for each group, total 40 students participant was found in random sampling mode