Introduction organizational and individual practices (Al-Aameri, 2000). It
The proposed research planned to find out the connection between
Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Sense of Coherence and
intervening part of Organizational Conflict Management of representatives of
privately owned businesses which incorporates private organizations,
multi-national organizations and firms. Researchers have demonstrated a
longstanding enthusiasm for the connection between Job Satisfaction and
Organizational Commitment, this intrigue is driven by examines that show that
a few parts of organizational commitment and faithfulness or loyalty are
related with the execution of your work and impacts how satisfy you are with
your duty. Job Satisfaction and sense of Coherence regarding utilizing
associations have gotten a lot of consideration from the two academicians and
professionals till in the 21st century. It has expanded to a great extent
because of their critical effect on organizational and individual practices
(Al-Aameri, 2000). It was discovered that worker states of mind toward
satisfaction and commitment are pointers to the solidarity between
organizational members and menagment. (Tonges et al., 1998)
When it is about Organizational Conflict Menagment Studies collaborative conflict management
culture has a positive effect on job satisfaction whereas a dominant
management culture has a negative effect on job satisfaction. No
statistically significant relationship was found between an avoidant conflict
management culture and job satisfaction. These findings may be valuable in
making decisions about provision of training in conflict management in order
to promote a positive working atmosphere within an organization (Chooi Y.
The question of how
managers promote and maintain health and well-being in the workplace has
gained popularity across disciplines. It is evident that conflicts and
inappropriate conflict management in organizations can also lead to reducing
health and well-being in managers. The sense of coherence in salutogenesis
has been found an important resource to manage stress and to cope with
challenging situations (Claude-Helen & Christina 2012).
Job satisfaction will describe individuals satisfaction related to his/her job.
The people who are happier with their job will supposed to be more satisfied.
The organizational commitment as Randal, and Riegel (1995) defined it in a
three dimensions. First is strong desire to remain a member of a exacting
organization, second is readiness to exert high levels of efforts on behalf
of the organization, and third is belief in and acceptability of the values
and goals of the organization. Sense of coherence
is described as a general feeling of confidence that the individual´s
internal and external environments are predictable and that they will work
out as planned. It is also viewed as a cognitive and emotional appraisal
style which is connected to coping and health-enhancing behaviors which
results in improved adjustment in social settings.
aimed to investigate the role of Job Satisfaction, Organizational commitment
and Sense of Coherence by mediating the effects of Organizational Conflict
Handelinhg Stretigies or ways in workers or employees of private firms or
multi-national companies. It will further investigate the relationship of each
of above mentioned variable on each other to see how exactly they correlate
with each other, so that we can insure that necessary precautions regarding
job satisfaction of employees must be taking accordingly in each firm.
Job Satisfaction is perhaps the blessing of seven heavens as all
an employee wants is that his workplace envoirnment should be emotionally and
physically healthy for him and the work should be like work not a torture and
the workplace should be relaxing not a pressure cooker.
Although, we have many researches regarding the relationship of
Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitments and the Job satisfaction and
organizational conflict menagment are there but very few are specifying the
mediating impact of Organizational Conflict Menagment with all the above
investigate relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational
investigate the Relationship between sense of Coherence and Job
Investigate the relationship between Sense of Coherence and
Organizational Conflict management.
investigate mediating role of Organizational Conflict Management in
relationship between Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and
Sense of Coherence.
Investigate the Relationship of Sense of Coherence as a predictor of Job
Satisfaction, organizational Commitment and Organizational Conflict
will be the Positive relationship between Job Satisfaction and
will be the Positive relationship between Sense of Coherence with Job
Satisfaction and Organizational Conflict Management.
Job Satisfaction, Organizational will be the Positive Predictor of
Sense of Coherence Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment.
is a Moderating Role of Organizational Conflict Inventory on Job
Satifaction and Organizational Commitment.
Data will be
collected through self-reports measures along with a brief demographic sheet.
Demographics like age, education, experience, designation will be recorded on
demographic sheet from the employees of private firms, multi-national
companies and businesses. Following instruments will be used for data
Job Satisfaction Scale (Warr, Cook & Wall 1979)
Job Satisfaction scale is consist of 15 items which respondents
are asked to rank 0-7 according to their level of satisfaction from extremely
dissatisfied to extremely satisfied.
Organizational Commitment Scale (Mowday, Steer and Porter 1979)
It is 15 items questionnaire that involves question regarding
level of commitment and loyalty to the organizations in question. These
question involves certain level of emotional connection. The response is
rated on a 7-point likert scale from 1=Strongly agree to 7=Strongly Disagree.
Out of 15 questiones in
the Questionnair, 6 are reversed which are 3,7,9,11,12 and 15.
Sense of Coherence (Avishai Antonovoski 1987)
The Scale of Sense of Coherence which tells us about the
orientation to life of a respondent by responding to questions on 7 point
Conflict Management Inventory
The english version of Organizational
conflict management inventory is consist of items which a respondent have to
answer on 5 point likert scale where 1=never and 5=often.
Sample of 200 employees from private
organizations, businesses from Chiniot, Sargodha and Faisalabad random
Sample of the study will be approached
individually and Questionnaires will be applied.
Percentages of Demographic Variables (N=200)
Less than 1 Year
Above 5 Years
Table 1 shows frequency and percentage of employees with respect to
Income, age, Experience, Education and Designation. Employees with Income
10-15,000 (f = 67, 34.2%) are greater
in number as compared employees with age group of other Income Ranges. Employees
with income abpve 25,000 (f = 20, 10.2%)
are least in number. Employees with age group 20-25 (f = 78, 39.8%) are greater in number as compared to other age ranges.
Whereas, the age group Above 35 (f =
7, 3.6%) are least on numbers. Employees with education till Metric (f = 88, 44.9%) as compared to the
employees with minimum education of till Middle School (f = 85, 43.4%). Whereas, the employees with above Bachlor level of
Education (f = 23, 11.7%) are least
in Numbers. Workers with Experience Less than 1 Year (f = 68, 34.7%) are greater in number than other ranges, whereas,
workers with above 5Years (f = 5,
2.6%) are least in numbers. Workers with Designation as Salesman or Equivlent (f = 92, 46.9%). Whereas, the employess
on Area level designation (f = 8,
2.1%) are least in Numbers.
Properties of Study Variables (N=200)
Sense of Coherence
Organizational Conflict Inventory
Table 2 shows
psychometric properties of study variables. The reliability analysis indicate
that the reliability coefficient of Organizational Commitment, Job
Satisfaction, Sense of Coherence and Organizational Conflict Inventory scale
are .76, .95, .82 and .92 respectively which indicates satisfactory internal
consistency. The values of skewness for all scales are less than 2 which
indicate that univariate normality is not problematic.
Correlation Matrix for all the Study Variables (N=200)
Note. OC = Organizational Commitment; SC = Sense of Coherence; JS =
Job Satisfaction; OCI = Organizational Conflict Inventory.
*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p< .001. Table 3 shows Pearson correlation among study variables. The findings indicate that Organizational Commitment has significant positive correlation with Sense of Coherence (r = .11, p < 0.01) and significant positive correlation with Job Satisfaction (r = .285 , p < 0.05), and Organizational Conflict Inventory (r = .334, p < 0.01),. Sense of Coherence have Significant positive Correlation with Job Satisfaction ((r = .188, p < 0.01) and OCI (r = .120, p < 0.01). Job Satisfaction have Significant Positive Correlation with OCI (r = .546, p < 0.01). Table 4 Multiple Regression Analysis showing the Effect of Organizational Comitment and Job Satisfaction on the Prediction of Sense of Coherence among employees (N= 200) Outcomes: Sense Of Coherence 95 % CL LL UL Predictors Model B Organizational Commitment .071* .245, .087 .049, .296 Job Satisfaction .208** R² .029 F 3.807*** *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p< .001. Results of multiple regression analysis, computed with Organizational Comitment and Job Satisfaction as predictor variables Sense of Coherence as Outcome Variable. The R² value of .029 indicates that 2.9% variance in the dependent variable can be accounted for, by the predictors with F= (2, 183) = 3.807, p < .001. The findings indicate that the predictors have significant positive effect on Outcome Variable. Table 5 Multiple Regression Analysis showing the moderating Effect of Organizational Conflict Inventory on the Prediction of Job Satisfaction among Employees (N= 200) Outcomes: Job Satisfaction 95 % CL LL UL Predictors Model B Organizational Conflict Inventory .546* .43, .69 R² .294 F 74.41* *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p< .001. Results of multiple regression analysis, computed with Organizational Conflict Inventory as predictor variable of Job Satisfaction. The R² value of .294 indicates that 29.4% variance in the dependent variable can be accounted for, by the predictors with F= (1, 175) = 74.41, p < .05. The findings indicate that the predictors have significant positive effect on Outcome Variable. Table 6 Multiple Regression Analysis showing the moderating Effect of Organizational Conflict Inventory on the Prediction of Organizational Commitment among Employees (N= 200) Outcomes: Organizational Commitment 95 % CL LL UL Predictors Model B Organizational Conflict Inventory .334* .15, .36 R² .106 F 21.92* *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p< .001. Results of multiple regression analysis, computed with Organizational Conflict Inventory as predictor variable of Organizational Commitment. The R² value of .106 indicates that 10.6% variance in the dependent variable can be accounted for, by the predictors with F= (1, 175) = 21.92, p < .05. The findings indicate that the predictors have significant positive effect on Outcome Variable. DISSCUSION The present study was aimed to find out the effect of perceived organizational support as predictor of Job Satisfaction, and organizational commitment among teachers. Psychometric properties of all scales; perceived organizational support, Job satisfaction and organizational commitment, were established on the sample of study. All scales were correlated with each other. The study went through proper research process. Population was specified using appropriate sampling technique and sample of 112 people was approached. Data gathered was recorded and was analyzed using suitable analytical techniques. Correlation analysis revealed that Organizational Support has a strong positive correlation with Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction. While Job Satisfaction has also a strong positive correlation with organizational commitment. 4 out of all 4 hypothesis are accepted There will be the Positive relationship between Sense of Coherence with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Conflict Management. The Job Satisfaction, Organizational will be the Positive Predictor of Sense of Coherence Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment. There is a Moderating Role of Organizational Conflict Inventory on Job Satifaction and Organizational Commitment. · There will be the Positive relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. Limitations: · As the research was conducted as per an academic requirement, so it is assumed that there were some limitations in the process of the research, which restricted strong correlation among study variables. · It is assumed that due to sampling error the selected sample of the study was not true representative of the population, which caused weak correlation among variables of study. · The research methods used are assumed to be not more appropriate, which caused weak correlation among study variables. · It is also assumed that appropriate analytical techniques were not used so correlation among study variables was effected. · Questionnaires were not in native language and most of population was unable to read it. Thus, it might also have caused Problem. Suggestions: · This study has utilized a cross-sectional design rather than a longitudinal design. To address the concern future research could test the relationships presented in a longitudinal design. · All the variables of present study were measured through self-report inventories which can lead to overstatement of relationship between variables. It is recommended that future researcher should use multiple sources for data collection along with self-report measures. · The sample of study was only limited to the only two cities which reduced the external validity and findings cannot be generalized to other cities population or whole country. Future studies must incorporate various age groups and other cities which may enhance the external validity and findings can be generalized to other age groups. · The sample of this study was from urban population of Sargodha and Chiniot, results of the study cannot be generalized to rural settings or other cultures. The effect of locality coupled with different levels of education, · The participants in this study constitute a volunteer sample. Research suggests that volunteers may differ from non-volunteers in their responses in research activities and therefore in general, volunteer samples are biased samples of a specified population. Also, this study relies solely on questionnaires which limit the validity of the findings. However, the researcher should use multiple perspectives There might be other variables that influence the findings of the study. The data was collected when there were very unpredictable and unstable circumstances, so this instability of circumstances might also have affected the results. REFRENCES Al-Aameri, A. S. (2000). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment for Nurses. S Saudi Medical Journal, 21 (6), pp. 531-535. Tonges, M. C., Rothstein, H. and Carter, H. K. (1998). Sources of Satisfaction Hospital Nursing Practice: A Guide to Effective Job Design. Journal of Nursing Administration, 28 (5), pp. 47-61. Choi, Y. (2013). The influence of conflict management culture on job satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 41, 687-692. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2013.41.4.687. Claude-Helene Mayer & Christina Krause (Eds.) Exploring Mental Health: Theoretical and Empirical Discourses on Salutogenesis. Pabst 2012, 184 pages, ISBN 978-3-89967-810-9 Randel & Reigel (2012). The Journal of Organizational Behaviours vol. 34, 150-158.