Introduction considerably linger behind in regards to leadership

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            This chapter will review the literature
of the present study on how racial and gendered
identities explain the leadership development of Asian-American women. The study will look at problems and obstacles
encountered by Asian-American women that
substantially developed in their careers. In general, much of research on
leadership development of women and minorities overlook the distinct dualism and occurrences faced by these women. A lack of research impacted the need
for literary analysis on the leadership development of Asian-American women as
they advanced to leading positions. Understanding
the lived experiences of these Asian-American women can familiarize the ascendency
to leadership.

of Women

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Over the last few years, the quantity
of literature on women’s leadership has enhanced; but, hardly any studies
explore leadership development of Asian-American women in leadership positions.
A great deal of the literature has been partial to the typical perspectives of
leadership. Specifically, a majority
of the research focused on leadership characteristics implemented by non-colored
males in organizations. The written
work filled with research on the distinction among male and female personality
that are usually connected with leadership (Cha & Weeden,
2014). Ghafoor,
Qureshi, Khan, and Hijazi (2011) pointed
out that, transformational leadership places an importance on socialism and liberation. Transformational
leadership has been associated to the leadership style of women of color (Huang,
Iun, Liu, 2010).

Compared to men, women considerably
linger behind in regards to leadership positions and this difference is even greater
for women of color (Warner & Corly, 2017). Warner and Corly
(2017) further mentioned that only 38 percent of women of color held higher leadership
positions. Merely 23
percent of businesses are headed by a women CEO, moreover, 4.6 percent of those business’ board seats are taken
by women. (Peck, 2015). Center for
American Women and Politics (2017) provides information that there have been only 39 women governors in the history of United States and none of them have been women of color; until the first colored
woman served as governor in the United States territory of Puerto Rico in 2001
to 2005. Jaschik (2008) reported just 23 percent of women were college presidents compared to 90.5
percent and 79 percent of non-colored males
in chief executive officer positions.
Furthermore, only 16 percent of chief executives reported in a non-profit
organization were women (Jaschik,
2008). Heilman & Okimoto (2007) specified
that discrimination for women lingers
in many professions. Women come
across inequity concerning their rank,
as well as the potential for advancement
(Yogeeswaran & Dasgupta, 2010). Catalyst (2017) revealed differences in pay, were
full time women in a position of management weekly median income was $1,027, compared
to $1,420 for men. There is an increase of women of color in the workforce; however,
the lack of power and influence to leadership ranks at the higher level persist. Despite
having job experience and a graduate degree, this division of the population
continues to be overlooked during promotions and is underpaid (Catalyst, 2011; Fisher,
2015). Women continue to struggle with the battle of hurdles known as the glass

The glass ceiling is an unseen
observable fact that has been the topic of exploration

for some time (Prasad,
2008). Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Phelan, and Nauts (2012) explained that the main impediment women encountered was men at
the leading positions who considered it awkward that women were working next to
them. On the other hand, White,
Rumsey, and Amidson (2016) referred
to the glass ceiling as see-through yet actual barricades, centered on biased
outlooks that obstruct capable
individuals consisting of women, racial minorities, and disabled from moving forward to higher
positions. The glass ceiling is defined as an indefinable hindrance founded by
organizational partiality that prohibited experienced individuals from
achieving advanced positions (Shambaugh, 2008).

Several clarifications have been put forward as a basis of argument
regarding women from reaching leadership positions. Corcoran (2008) mentioned women probably
might not be hopeful for high-ranking posts as they do not know that leadership
positions are approachable for them. Additionally,
women can be dispirited by seniors from following these positions, otherwise
may not be in the suitable rank when progression is made (Brezinski, 2012).

Even though few numbers of studies have
been on women of color in leadership positions, they usually concentrated
on hurdles to equal opportunity, along with the limitation of career development for minority women opposed to paying attention on
individual experiences (Cha & Weeden,
2014). Moreover, the research most of the time includes how
minority women lead within primarily non-colored organizations and therefore,
do not provide a perception of leadership advancement. Consequently, there is a noticeable lack of research on how Asian-American
women experience leadership and grow as leaders. For that purpose, it may facilitate our understanding to identify the
transformations of leadership in organizations and develop theoretical frameworks that are appropriate to these recognized groups (Huang et al., 2010).


Leadership can be defined in various ways. A leader
with valuable characteristics is determined to achieve something, along with
having the capability to apply judge worthy opinion. These types of leaders can
be ambitious in succeeding without stopping or giving up (Ryan, 2009). The
definition of a good leader may be an individual with a common sense of responsibility,
and the need for importance towards a project (Ryan, 2009). Traditionally,
the customarily defined representation of leadership has been outshined by men.
Northouse (2010) implied that with no control over others, leadership could not

In talking about leadership, the analysis
of leadership have apparently presumed

ideas of white-middle-class men as the crucial
group for considering leadership; as characteristic are strong inherently (Bartfay
& Bartfay, 2017; Northouse, 2010). Considering this concept of leadership,
women and minorities have been disqualified (Eddy
& Cox, 2008). The leadership
of women that emerged a few years back mainly emphasized the experiences of
middle- to upper-class white women, lacking consideration to women of color (Collins, 2003). Leadership approach in research revealed that women and men
have diverse styles. Burke, Stagl, Klein, Goodwin,
Salas, and Halpin (2006)
implied that men were task-oriented, while women become known as
social leaders. Task-oriented behaviors of men suggested important in their surfacing
as leaders; therefore, considered as suitable for leadership roles over women.

The majority studies on leadership have concentrated
on men overlooking feminine
leadership such as leadership characteristics and growth
(Alimo-Metcalfe &Alban-Metcalfe, 2005). Discussions remain whether men and women
leadership roles differ. Isaac, Griffin, and Carnes (2010) indicated that leadership
styles of both individuals are dissimilar since women display oriented
leadership behaviors whereas men are planned, inventive and conventional.

and Gender Factor

Double standards in regards to leaders continue
as women encounter problems in organizations
that are male-dominated; to attain achievement women naturally require adjustment
to the male culture by taking on their mindset and standards (Bartfay &
Bartfay, 2017). Heilman and Okimoto (2007)
suggested that maintaining leadership positions can be challenging for
women as the ideas that people perceive of leaders are separate from those they
identify of women. Berdahl and Min (2012)
implied that fixed beliefs about gender differences create difficult circumstances for women to get hold of the prospect and
be positioned in superior leadership ranks.
The long-established representation of leadership presumes that good leadership is basically male-oriented
(Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe, 2005; Ryan, 2009). These
masculine traits persist to be
related to exceptional leadership are
defined as an excellent decision-maker, planned, self-confident and tactical (Northouse,
2010). Fisher (2015) conversely described female leaders as
responsive, understanding, concerned, and approachable. Feminine leadership styles present characteristics of being
cooperative, broad, and egalitarian (Northouse, 2010).

Women are limited in high leadership status and the equality involving men and women
continue toward descending path (Isaac,
Griffin, & Carnes, 2010).
Silverman (2010) reported approximately
30 to 40 percent women are heading into leadership positions in the last ten
years so; women will not recognize supervisory equality in the coming years. Yet,
U.S. Department of Labor Women’s Bureau (2010) conveyed women are expected to report
51.2 percent of growth in the labor force among 2008 and 2018. Although women in the labor force make
up a standard of 47 percent of minor management positions in U.S.
organizations, this percentage falls considerably comprising 17 percent of
women at the supervisory rank (Humes,
Jones & Ramirez, 2011).

While women are trying to come up to
leadership titles, the hurdles to guarantee stability and holding of women
leadership ability become intricate. Among
the ongoing limitation in female leaders, the concerns have continuing outcomes
for women emerging through the barrier to advancement.
Cha and Weeden (2014) pointed
out that women are progressively surpassing men in the academy, and their statistics exceeding in advancing degrees. On
the other hand, organizations cannot
offer to waste female ability and the capability it epitomizes for corporations (Berdahl
& Min, 2012).

Women are involved and advancing in the
labor force and making growth into professional positions yet, entrance to
senior roles are still partial (Catalyst,
2011). A look at literature uncovers
that hardly any research investigated the lived experiences of women and concentrated
on women’s career development from the perception of women who have progressed
into higher positions (Denmark & Klara, 2010). Also, there is a noticeable lack
of research that looks into experiences of Asian-American women who have moved up to leadership positions in organizations
(Yungjoo & Weeden, 2014).

Attributable to the change in workplace demographics and comprehensive

environment, leadership becomes essential. It is necessary
for global organizations to recognize and extend women leaders who can work efficiently
(Denmark & Klara, 2010). Still,
to prospectively flourishing, people require to build up leaders who are capable
of running organizations. Organizations need leaders that have an appeal and have
the potential to motivate and think for the
good interest of others in the organization. It is significant for present organizations to have the skill to recognize
varied labor force that will consist of equal women and women of color, to offer
leadership competence that can change these endeavors to address the competition
of the latest international organizations.

Leadership Styles

Gender and leadership style frequently concentrate
on the amount to which leaders are

autonomous or authoritarian and the behavior in which they correspond to their staff (Burke
et al.,  2006). However, there are
lot disparities in the cultural background of which certain groups grow as
leaders. According to Isaac et al., (2010), the socialized qualities connected
with successful leadership are intellectual,
self-assured, and independent. The
leadership abilities that are mainly related to women are supporting, accommodative, and detail oriented (Catalyst,
2005; Northouse, 2010). Fine
(2009) established
that minority women leadership qualities are portrayed as contributive, fostering,
and transformational. Gaetane,
Williams, and Sherman (2009) discussed in regards to leadership styles
that women show to come across additional difficulty than men in acquiring leadership
posts and experiences that assist professional development.

Feminist Theories

In the workforce, women in leadership standing can come
across gender role

assumptions and
certain conducts that are inconsistent amid each another (Parker, 2005). For example, if a woman displays task-oriented actions she can be
considered manly and use of authority in a mannish way to obtain opposing
reactions. Alternatively, fostering behaviors are concluded as inappropriate
for organizations (Eddy & Cox, 2008; Harding, & Norberg, 2005). Ironically in acquiring authority,
these women misplace feminine characteristics (Leatherwood & Williams, 2008). Fine (2009) pointed out that these contradictions of the concept of bringing in women by
the usual systems in which they work can ensure growth by refusing
association to an individual’s gender, social group, and by relating achievement
and individuality in ways that hold back incorporated classification.

Mentors frequently have an essential role in the progress
of a leader (Denmark & Klara,
2010). Collins (2003) specified that a woman, who applies self-reliance to handle inequality
problems of the group as the
primary entity does not cause a challenge to the organization.

However, Heilman and Okimoto (2007) considered how idiosyncrasy forms gender realizations among women
in leadership, by concentrating on divesting of feminine trait. Several studies revealed women kept away from gender discussion as
they wanted to be assessed exclusively of gender interfering (Parker, 2005; Shakeshaft, 1989). Kirsch & Royster (2012) illustrated that anxiety to separate from other women occurs from wanting
to show they were separate from negative labels. There is a great deal of confrontation from these women which, concludes
in segregation and powerlessness to make unity with other women eventually obstructing
social change.

Prasad (2008) offered
a summary of women in leadership roles who took on mainly traditional leadership
style that continued through their profession stabilization phase. The
idea was that female leaders had to appear tough to achieve respect in the
workforce (Parker, 2005). Conversely, Skrla (2000) established that as
soon as a level of ease was attained, female leaders at times incorporate
feminine leadership behaviors in their functioning leadership approach.

Effective leaders depict on leadership and task
orientations equally exclusive of
gender, but instead to their contextual background (Stahly, 2007). The
research initiated that gender is one of the environmental factors that outlines
leadership methods. It was noted
that women and men complete leadership responsibilities in similar manners, however, women have to handle more intricacy as
they are female in a conventionally male positions (Terry & Hogg, 1996). Women
have to tackle these gender-based complexities without influencing the
leadership approach they choose. Women
decide strategies by circumstances as it is presented to them (Skrla, 2000). Women may greatly be different from one
another in leadership approach because of
their backgrounds.

Research is present on different fronts regarding
gender and leadership views. It is
specified that women perceive the world in a different way from men setting off
researchers to classify distinctive feminine leadership concepts (Brezinski,
2012; White et al., 2016). Yogeswaran
and Dasgupta (2010) noted that leadership
behavior may be dependent on circumstances and vary among men and women.

Socio-cultural Theories

Socio-cultural alludes to theoretical
perspectives to reflect on gender, race, as well as

social-class in evaluating attributes of power inside
organizations where supremacy can be applied to dominate (Tuhus-Dubrow, 2009).
Asian-American women are concurrently positioned as a minimum group that is
forced to undergo wide-ranging lower positions, socio-cultural
theories confront the idea that obstacles can be seen as gender or racial bias (Liang,
Lee, & Ting 2002). In addition, systems of coercion include many folds that bring
about discrimination, prejudice, and differences among social-class. The positions of Asian-American women
in mainly non-colored organizations go through many difficulties, which cannot
be recognized from the familiarity of other groups in such situations. As a result, minority women have realized
how to act in response, and counter to problems rising from socio-cultural matters that have tested their
leadership understanding (Comb,
2003; Kirsch & Royster, 2012).

Socio-cultural theories can be
constructive for comprehending Asian-American women’s repression and separation
in the workforce for the reason of setting free along with social development (Catalyst,
2003; Heilman & Okimoto,
2007). Socio-cultural theories are significant
in giving a structure for sensing how Asian-American women create and perform leadership
in their specialized background.

In regards to studies on socio-cultural
topics, there should be broader awareness on ways that sexism, racism,
ethnicity affect individuals lived experiences (Huang et al., 2010; Isaac et al., 2010). Gender differentiations
attached with race bias create views
that contribute to the absence of Asian-American women at the leadership rank (Liang et al., 2002). Rudman et al., (2012) mentioned, when gender and race come
together, contrasting principles ascends for Asian-American women, hence plummeting leadership status and
creating opposing feelings on their skill to lead. Minority women may face consistent hurdles that limit progress at
the organizational levels.

Socio-cultural theory conveys a structure for understanding the intricacy
of minority women’s characteristics and occurrences (Parker & Ogilvie, 1996).
Gender, race, and social class overlap and form social realism and tell the manifold that extent the
lived experiences of Asian-American women
(Groenewald, 2004; Prasad, 2008). Society and standards offer an outline of
indication for creating meaning of general experiences. For this reason, Asian-American
women see the things from distinct standpoint centered on their social stance, along
with the restrictions of the bigger societal structures of gender and race (Harding & Norberg, 2005).

Asian-American women look for amicable
entrance to the prospects that

their capability and their compliance to occupation enable
them. Fisher (2015) affirms
that although in search of leadership status, women even now deal with social
and cultural

fences in regards to
organizational standards, outlook of gender conformity,

and typecast. Having
insight about gender norms for Asian-American women in the labor force, prevailing
hurdles can be tackled and approach broadened to raise their image in leadership standing.


Gaps in the Literature

Even though few type of research have been carried
out on Asian-American women in

labor force, these
investigations have normally paid attention on issues of career

development, prospects limitations, progression development, and inequity problems, instead of concentrating
on the person’s lived experiences. Consequently,
there is a limitation of exploration on how Asian-American women develop as
leaders. Inadequate research is present on
how gender and race characteristics influence Asian-American women as leaders
and their progress as leaders in organizations.



Reviewing the literature, there are sufficient
details to propose that Asian-American
leadership development experiences may
be dissimilar in comparison to the non-colored
and other minorities. The literature
supports the importance of looking into leadership development to recognize and advance Asian-American female
leaders. This research study intends
to analyze race and gender for Asian-American women through their lived experiences and understand their
development as leaders.

Summary of Chapter Two

This chapter assessed leadership roles
and development of Asian-American females. This section reflected on the
theoretical framework on feminist and socio-cultural theories to present related written works on the effect of gender and race on leadership growth.
Some theories offered facts of gender
partiality, racial discrimination, and stereotypes of women of color. The research has reliably indicated
that Asian-American women experienced race and gender partiality that have influenced
their development to leadership status. Chapter
3 will offer a comprehensive information flow of the research design, outline of
the study’s methodology, along with collection of data.





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