Interdependence:1. Do any other countries help Mali, if so what have they done for them?       Mali depends a lot on foreign aid and they would not know what to do without it. The main countries that invest on Mali are France, Canada, the United States, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and a few European places. France is a big ally to Mali, and they help Mali in many ways such as a contribution to their economy. France exports resources like equipment, pharmaceuticals, farming and agricultural products, and transport equipment. Although Mali is far from France and they don’t have a wide range of resources, the generosity of France continues. Some investors choose not to support Mali because they mostly just have agricultural goods to offer.2.     What kind of development does Bamako, Mali have and why is it like that?                 Statistics show that Mali as a whole is 39.1% urban and 60.9% percent rural, therefore it is mostly a rural, undeveloped country. Although considering Bamako is the capital of Mali, it is an urban city. Part of the reason of why Bamako is an urban area is because during the 1970s and 1980s lots of drought occurred in the north eastern areas causing citizens to move south where Bamako and other cities are located. Also, the further north you go the more cliffs and hills there are, but Malians need flat ground for farming because they thrive in agriculture. Bamako is also located on the Niger River which makes people want to live their due to fishing, boating, shipping by boat and more. Spatial significance:       3.    How does the population of Bamako compare to the population of Toronto?              The population of Bamako is around 1.8 million people and the population of Toronto is around 2.7 million people. This shows that Toronto has a larger population than Bamako. Bamako is the capital of its country and Toronto is not, yet it has more people. This is because Canada has a larger population from Mali and it is bigger. Toronto is also a better place to live when you’re considering economy, environment, health care, poverty, and opportunity. But not everyone can afford to live in Toronto because it is very expensive.                      4.    How does the location of Mali affect the birth rate and death rate?               Mali is far from its resources and it is also partially in the desert which has a negative impact on the birth rate and death rate within the country. Most of the people in Mali do not have access to health care and this affects not only the birth rate and the death rate but the infant mortality rate because they do not have the proper medicines and medical equipment. This also affects their life expectancy, which is about 53 years old compared to Canada our life expectancy is around 82 years old. Also, Bamako, Mali is 1408 km 875 miles from the equator. Usually the countries that are close to the equator are extremely hot and they are mostly rural. Considering Mali is only partially urban, this means poverty thrives and resources are limited, so more sickness’ and diseases are prone. This leads to a higher death rate. Although, the birth rate is immense because cultural views on children, health policies (some policies encourage people to have kids), and laws in which avoiding birth is illegal.                           Geographic perspective:       5.    Does the environment provide all the resources necessary for the public?              The environment of Bamako provides flat land and decent soil for farming and growing crops, although there is some soil erosion. Another important resource is that the Niger River has many types of fish for people to catch and eat, this is very important during the dry season. They have also constructed two hydro powered dams on the Niger River that have contributed toward the electricity in Bamako, and other cities nearby. The Niger River is also important for transportation. It is used for commercial shipping from the Atlantic Ocean. The environment in Bamako provides many resources but not all the resources that are necessary to sustain a healthy life. The shortage of clean water has fortunately decreased and more people have access to it, although many people still do not have it. Another thing that has a big impact on Bamako is drought. Drought is a huge problem that is caused by the lack of rainfall in the environment. In conclusion, I think that the environment does provide most of the resources they need to live. Some of the resources they need aren’t provided by the environment for example healthcare, hygienic items like sinks and toilets, stable homes, electricity, and more.         6.    How does the economy affect how the citizens sustain life?               Many people who live in Bamako/Mali in general, are struggling with economy that is leading to poverty and starvation. Some people can’t find jobs that pay enough money to provide for their families, others just aren’t qualified for the job or they just can’t find any jobs at all. A lot of jobs require education but many people didn’t have the opportunity to go to school. This is why citizens move to places such as France and other European countries for schooling and employment. Their economy also affects their state of living, many people in Mali don’t have proper housing, electricity and sanitation. Which are very important factors to living a sustainable life.                    Patterns and trends:       7.     Do the members of the society have enough money to immigrate to another country for better life?              Mali is a country that is mostly full of poverty but some people that live there are not poor. Research shows that around 4 million Malians are living outside of the country and they have immigrated due to factors such as employment, education, lack of resources, and poor lifestyle. The citizens that can afford to move to a different country can immigrate if they would like to. But many are not fortunate enough to move for a better life unless somebody helps them by donating money or they might immigrate illegally. But once the country they move to finds out they came without permission, they are sent back to Mali right away to face the consequences. Although, Malians love their country and some of them may not want to move. Overall, I would say most Malians do not have enough money to start a new life in another country.           8.     Is the economy rate in Mali increasing or decreasing?              The economy rate in Mali is unsteadily increasing. The Economy rate can also be known as the GDP of mali. GDP stands for gross domestic product, this is a measure of Mali’s income and output as a country. This is relating to the amount of money spent for all of the products, business’ and goods provided in a certain amount of time. Statistics show in 2008 the GDP was 9.75 billion USD and in 2016 the GDP was 14.05 billion USD. This displays that the economy rate has been increasing. But if you take a look at the years in between 2008 and 2016 it shows that the rate is not balanced and it alters more and less between years.

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