INSTITUT 5. CONCLUSION 14 6. RECOMMENDATIONS 15
KEPIMPINAN DAN PENGURUSAN
KAPT MOHS SUKRI BIN MD ZAINUN TUDM (374956)
KAPT BASIR BIN IDRIS TUDM (374451)
KAPT ADAM BIN OTHMAN
“If you want to make peace, don’t talk to your
friend, you talk to your enemies”.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. TABLE OF CONTENTS 2
2. INTRODUCTION 3
3. AIM 4
4. SCOPE 4
Moshe dayan Personal Background 5
Principle for Moshe Dayan 9
Traits of Moshe Dayan 9
Traits of Moshe Dayan 12
Learnt in relation to the Principle chosen 13
5. CONCLUSION 14
6. RECOMMENDATIONS 15
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCES 17
A. PPB (MAL) 100 Malaysian Armed Forces Staff
Manual, Volume 1, Service Writing (Provisional).
for Ex. Panglima For Squadron Officer Course Serial 89/19 dated 26 Jan 18.
1. Moshe Dayan was a famous icon of
Israeli Military leader and politician. He was born in May 1915 in. He started
his military life at the age of 14 when he joined Haganah the Jewish military
organization against Arab attacks. He retired from military at the age of 66
and involved in politic 2 year later until his death on 16 October 1981 due to
serious heart attack.
his life, he has been involved in seven wars between 1936 until 1973. He was a
very experienced military personnel because he rising through lower rank until
he was appointed as Chief of Staff in Israeli Defence Force. He was a good
negotiator during Armistice Agreement with which led to a long term peace
agreement with Jordan. The most significant about Moshe Dayan is when he played
a major role in tremendous short time victory in Six Day War. He was also responsible
for the total failure of Israeli Defence Force in Yom Kippur War.
aim of this paper is to explain the positives and negatives traits of Moshe
Dayan as a one of the Israeli top leader and to explore the leadership as a
lesson learnt in recent modern day warfare and conflict.
4. The paper will be divided accordingly to
a. Leader background.
b. Chosen principle to describe the leader.
c. Positive traits.
d. Negative traits.
e. Lesson learnt in relation to the
5. Moshe Dayan was an Israeli military
leader who later became icon for peace. He played a major role in seven wars
and helped negotiate the Israel-Egypt peace treaty. He was born in 20th
May 1915 on Kibbutz Deganya Alef, near Lake Kinneret. He is the youngest son
for his parents Shemuel and Devorah.
6. He was only 14 years old when he joined
the Haganah, an underground organization that defended Jewish settlements from
Arab attacks. In the Haganah, he learned guerilla warfare from British Captain Charles
Orde Wingate. He served with the special police force in the Jezreel Valley and
Galilee during the riots of 1936-1939. He was arrested and imprisoned for two
years when the British outlawed the Haganah. He was released in 1941 and joined
the British army where he served with the forces that liberated Lebanon and
Syria from Vichy France during World War II. He was wounded in battle in
Lebanon and lost his left eye where he began to wear the black eyepatch and later
became his trademark. He cooperated with British intelligence to set up a
broadcasting network for clandestine operations behind enemy lines in the event
that Palestine should fall to the Germans. He remained active in the Haganah until
9. He involved in the 1948 War of Independence
and commanded the defense of Jewish settlements in the Jordan Valley. He later
commanded the battalion that attacked the city of Lydda and helped halt Egyptian
forces on the southern front. In August 1948, he was appointed commander on the
Jerusalem front. In 1949, he participated in armistice talks with Jordanian
officials at Rhodes. Dayan’s military prowess allowed him to rise to the rank
of chief of operations at General Headquarters in 1952, and, in 1953, he was
elected Chief of Staff of the armed forces.
10. Dayan became Chief of Staff during a time
of severe Arab belligerence. Despite the military armistice of 1949, the
surrounding Arab nations remained hostile, maintaining a maritime blockade,
reinforcing an economic boycott, promoting political and propaganda warfare and
supporting terrorism in Israel. The Israeli government was unable to contain
the terrorist violence. Dayan insisted on strong retaliation operations. His
view was that the Arabs saw terrorism as a stage of war, and the longer the terrorist
attacks continued, the longer the Arabs had to build up their military
strength. He wanted to force the Arabs into open battle before they gained full
military power. Under Dayan’s command, the Israeli military launched raids in Gaza
and other retaliatory missions, causing heavy casualties to the Egyptians,
Syrians, and other Arab populations. On October 29, 1956, Dayan led Israel’s Suez
campaign, an invasion of the Sinai Peninsula after Egypt, Syria and Jordan signed
a pact stating as their goal the destruction of Israel.
11. Dayan left the military in 1958 and
entered his second career — politics. He joined Israel’s Labor Party Mapai, and
was elected to the Knesset in 1959. He served as Minister of Agriculture in the
government of David Ben- Gurion from 1959 until 1964. In 1964, Dayan resigned
as Minister of Agriculture after an argument with new Prime Minister Levi
Eshkol and joined Ben-Gurion in forming a new party called Rafi (Alliance of
Israel’s Workers). Dayan did not stay out of the government for long, however.
One year later, Dayan was reelected to the Knesset representing Rafi, which
the Labor party .
12. Dayan’s reputation as an effective leader
grew when he was appointed Minister of Defense under Levi Eshkol just in time
for the Six-Day War in 1967 against Egypt, Jordan and Syria. When the Syrians
were shelling Israeli villages in Upper Galilee, Dayan was the one who made the
decision to launch a full-scale attack against the Syrians. It was also Dayan
who ended the fighting by arranging a cease-fire with Syria through Chief of
Staff of the UN Observer Corps, General Odd Bull. Dayan was seen as “a solo
performer, partly admired, partly feared for his political stunts.”
13. After the war, Dayan controlled the
territories occupied by the Israeli Army. He opened the borders for Arab
residents of the territories to travel to Arab countries, while at the same
time maintaining order and security in Israeli-held areas.
14. Dayan kept his position as Defense
Minister when Golda Meir of the Labor Party
succeeded as Prime Minister in 1969. Ambassador Gideon Rafael wrote about
Dayan, “Rocking the boat is his favourite tactic, not to overturn it, but to
sway it sufficiently for the helmsman to lose his grip or for some of its
unwanted passengers to fall overboard.” One of his most controversial demands,
made in 1973, was for the construction of Yamit, a new Israeli port city in
Egyptian territory. Fearful of Dayan’s defection from the, Labor Party Meir supported the plan.
15. Before the Yamit plan could advance, however,
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat launched a surprise attack against Israel. On Yom
Kippur , October 6, 1973, Egyptian armies crossed the Suez Canal, moved
anti-aircraft missiles into the canal area, and waged war on Israel. Israeli losses
were high and Israel had too short a supply of equipment to conduct a prolonged
16. On October 22, a cease-fire was declared,
but the Israeli public’s confidence had been severely shaken. Israel had been
unprepared for the surprise attack and unable to repulse it quickly. The
nation’s lack of preparation was blamed on Defense Minister Dayan and an
outraged public demanded his resignation. The president of the Supreme Court
set up a commission to investigate the performance of generals during the war.
The commission recommended the resignation of the Chief of Staff, but reserved judgement
on Dayan. The press and the public, however, condemned him. After attending a military
funeral at which bereaved parents had called him a murderer of their sons,
Dayan submitted his resignation to Meir in 1974.
17. Dayan was “loath to close his life
story marked by the events of the Yom Kippur War,” and, in 1977, newly
elected Likud Prime Minister Menachem Begin gave him a second chance by offering
him the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs. Although Dayan was from the opposition
Labor Party , he accepted the appointment because he believed, “I could significantly
influence Israel’s moves towards achieving a peace arrangement with our neighboring
Arab States and with the Palestinian
of Judea and Samaria and the Gaza Strip.”
18. In May 1977, Dayan began negotiating with
the Egyptians As lead negotiator, Dayan began with the premise of receiving an
Arab acceptance of Israeli rule over Judea, Samaria and Gaza, in exchange for a
return of Sinai to Egypt. He negotiated for 18 months, and held secret meetings
with officials in India, Iran, England and Morocco. His style is described as
acting “alternately with dash and deliberation, advancing and stalling,
vacillating between surprising compromises and inexplicable intransigence.”
With help from U.S. president and mediator Jimmy Carter, Dayan met with the Egyptians
first at Leeds Castle and later at Camp David . Eventually, a peace agreement,
the Camp David Accords , was drawn up and signed at 11 p.m. on Sunday September
19. In 1979, Dayan resigned as Foreign
Minister. Dayan and Begin disagreed about the building of settlements in the
territories and Dayan was frustrated by the fact that he was not leading the autonomy
talks with the Palestinians. Dayan also felt that he was increasingly being
bypassed on foreign policy issues. In 1981, he formed the Telem party, which
advocated unilateral disengagement from the territories occupied in 1967. The
party received only two mandates in the subsequent elections.
20. On May 14, 1979, Dayan was diagnosed with
colon cancer. He died on October 16, 1981, in Tel Aviv and was buried in
Nahalal, the moshav where he was raised.
14. BE-KNOW-DO Leadership Model. The
Be-Know-Do Model of leadership has been introduce by Erick K. Shinseki who are retired
General of United States Army during his appointment as Chief of Staff. It has
been published in the United States Army Leadership Manual in year of 1999. The
framework of this leadership model apply to all the leaders in military no
matter what position they are holding. The BE consist of the value of the
leader itself which consist of loyal, duty, selfless, respect, honor, and
courage. This character or attribute of a leader is a basic foundation where it
show the ability to lead. The meaning of KNOW is a set of skills and knowledge
that a leader must have which is interpersonal skill, conceptual skill,
technical skill and tactical skill. All of this will be perfected with DO which
is the act of a leader themselves that bring together what they believe and
they know how to do to provide purpose, direction and motivation to their man
in achieving preferred goal.
model of leadership suits perfectly for Moshe Dayan as it is an army conceptual
guidance for being a good leader. All of
the achievement that Dayan had during his life as a political and military
leader is a proof for other leader to apply this leadership model in whatever
appointment they hold.
16. BE. Moshe Dayan show the
character of a leader when he remain loyal to Israeli from the beginning of his
military career until he died. He remain duty in service even though he was
nearly killed and lost his left eye. The negotiation in armistice agreement at
Rhodes show that Dayan was a respectful leader when he honor the treaty that
gives Israel a long term ceased fire with Jordan in 1949. After he was promoted
to Chief of Staff, Dayan show the courage to change from a defensive and
diplomatic approach to an offensive military affair.
17. KNOW. His experience and
knowledge in guerilla warfare during his service in Haganah military undercover
made him the best candidate to lead the newly establish special force of Israel
Defense Force. The tactical skill shown during Six Day War prove to be the
biggest achievement for Dayan when Israel win a huge victory against Arab
country in a very short time. He able to understand both own forces and enemy forces
when he order a full-scale air offensive after he detected the adversary
weakness and achieve dominant air supremacy.
18. DO. Moshe Dayan ability to
influence his subordinate and make them believe that peace can be achieve for
their country is the reason behind his successful. By doing that, he was able
to motivate his forces to follow his path.
He took the initiative to launch a full scale attack against Arabs (Egypt, Syria,
Jordan, Iraq and Lebanon) during Six Day War from 5-10 June 1967. The attack
was successful within very short time. He
carefully planned the war’ strategy, frequently rehearsed, and extraordinarily
well coordinated pre-emptive attack by the Israeli Air Force (IAF) on Arabs
airfields and aircraft. the plan of attack was actually conceived four years earlier,
in 1963. The 0745 time-on-target first strike was chosen due to less alertness after
the morning dawn patrols were over and most pilots and ground crews were
breakfasting. It also to give pilots and crew IAF have enough sleep time and
approximately start to work on 0400h which is good for down strike. Also, at
this time of year the heavy morning mist and completely clear by 0800h considered
of the sun angle. During 15 minutes before 0800h almost Arab Commander and key
personal are on their way to work led great opportunity for IAF to attack.
4. Experience. He was a commander who had a fantastic
knowledge about own force and enemy. He was rise through lower rank until
became Israel Defence Force Chief of Staff. He was experienced military personnel
due to involve in battle field since he was 14 years old. He involve in seven
wars during his life such as Arab Revolt in Palestine, World War II,
Arab-Israel War, Suez Crisis, Six Day War, War of Attrition and Yom Kippur War.
With his well experience in many wars he was appointed as Chief of Staff,
Southern command, Northern Command and commander of 89th Battalion.
He was upset after the failure of Israel against Syrian Army. He dare to
changed Israel in to an aggressive force with his commencement as Chief of Staff.
military objective was to fight an offensive war on enemy territory instead of being dragged into a war on
Israeli land. He was prepared the Israeli
Defence Force by strengthened combat units, raising the intelligence and
training branch, procured adequate equipment, emphasis of strike force and
training the commando. During Six Day War, the timing and tempo achieved in the
opening air raids was perfect, with all Israeli aircraft in the first attack wave
arriving at ten different Egyptian bases at precisely 0745. This excellent
timing continued with each ensuing attack wave arriving every ten minutes which
resulted Israeli tremendously win the war within six day destroyed almost Arabs
6. Enthusiasm. He remains loyal and sacrifices to
Israeli from the beginning of his military career until he died. He joined
military force at 14 years old and rises through the rank and became the Chief
of Staff which is highest rank in Israeli Defence Force. He was involved in
many wars during his military service. He remains his duty in duty even though
he was nearly killed and lost his left eye in one of the battle that he was
involved. He served for Israeli about 52 years until he died to make Israel one
of the most powerful country in the world.
7. Arrogant. Dayan is a symbol of an
arrogant Israeli and over confident in achieving victory in every war he
participated especially in the Six Day War. With his attitude and determination
then led to Israel’s failure in the Yom Kippur War in 1973. With his directive and
decision led to the total failure Israel might be affect from his confusing
predictions and mental health problems from the war that he involved.
He was disobeyed an order from his superior over Armistice Agreement. He was involved
in negotiation with Abdullah el Tell, Jordanian Military Commander of East Jerusalem
without acknowledgement of his superior, Major-General Zvi Ayalon OC Central Command
and found guilty by court-martialled. He was demoted from Lieutenant Colonel to
Major rank. This not prevents him from attending the armistice negotiations on
Rhodes. Finally, he was
appointed head of all Israeli delegations to the Mixed Armistice Commission meetings.
LEARNT IN RELATION TO THE PRINCIPLES CHOSEN
22. Moshe Dayan self belonging to his country
is a recipe of successful in his military and political career. His leadership attribute
can be adapted to our RMAF officer to be implement. As a RMAF Officer, we should
take Moshe Dayan as an example which he always place service ahead of his
own self interests in many ways. Service before self does not mean you stop
taking care of your families. Our families are a critical element of the Air
Force family. Our service should enhance their health; morale and welfare not
take away from it. While Air Force duties take up a large chunk of our time, we
must take every opportunity to spend time with our families and involve
ourselves in their lives too. This principle of service before self also does
not mean we as RMAF Officer should not pursue higher education, participate in
off-duty activities or pursue personal and professional development. The Air Force
desires well-rounded Officer who are physically, mentally and spiritually
grounded. It is beneficial when these extra-curricular pursuits align with
service and mission requirements.
a conclusion, Moshe Dayan was one of the greatest military leaders in a world of
incessant small wars since World War II. He was not perfect, but no other
Israeli was more responsible for bringing Israel through all its perils on the
brink of destruction to its present opportunity for peace through strength.
him or hate him, Dayan has shown the great achievement qualities during his career.
Who else in Israel history has shown such courage, determination, leadership,
patriotism and vision.The great confidence and physical strength that drove him
apparently also gave him a self-destructive feeling of invincibility. Leader
or ruler of an army or country needs to have democratic and diplomacy relations
with its area countries. This could
assist in developing its country from the social, economy and politic
perspective while ensuring foreign investors invest in their country. However, Moshe dayan being a self-centred
person which did not care about this perspective. He change Israeli Defence force approach with
its own perspective.
Israel was a small country initially. Dayan has transformed it to the power
full military, he ensures his country is safe, strong and respected by others. Dayan
does this by concentrating strengthen Israel Defence Force.
26. In Israeli history, Dayan stands tall as
one of the most important military and political figures to grace the nation.
Despite his controversial nature, Dayan performed tasks not only as a military
leader, but as a statesman as well. Not only he did help a young Israel
establish its independence and safety at one point in his career, but he later
took on the task of guiding the still fledging nation during a very tumultuous
time period. Though not every Israeli citizen, or world citizen for that
matter, agrees that Dayan made the right decisions, one thing is certain: he
made the decisions that he did without hesitance and with his nation’s best
interests at heart.
KHAMIZAN BIN MORSIDI
Syndicate Group A-2 Leader