In various subunits, this gap also varies. Quality
In order to improve the organization’s overall business
process which includes the quality of products and services, a methodical approach
called Total Quality Management is used(H.C. Lau, M.A. Idris, 2001. This
integrated program is used to gain competitive advantages through continuous
improvement in every aspects of
organizational culture. Hence TCQ is an integrated
management philosophy which emphasizes :
teamwork and employee involvement
meeting customers’ needs
continuous analysis of
closer connection with suppliers, and so on (Oke, M. A., &
Oke, O. D., 2014).
Implementing the programs like total quality management has
become an effective strategy in order to improve the quality of goods and services
(Tata, J., & Prasad, S., 1998).
Among the organizations where total
quality management (TQM) practices were adopted and systematically executed
with sufficient top management control, the corresponding competitive
advantages achieved is high (Thomas J.
Douglas and William Q.
Judge Jr., 2001). Yet many organizations fail to execute the program
Among the researches based on the
surveys, the major concern was to find what makes the TQM work. The failures in
TQM initiatives due to lack of information and data
on the critical success factors etc, made the researchers to examine the problems associated with its implementation.
They suggest that through TQM programs, less than half of the organizations have observed
significant improvement. This can result even in the collapse of the previous
system that existed before the implementing the Total Quality Management
program(H.C. Lau, M.A. Idris, 2001). Hence they fail to bring sustained changes
in the organization. They become a trend which will soon be replaced by another
trend. The gap between the top management’s expressions on their targets for
TQM and the reality in execution of this in different subunits of the organization
resulted in failure to institutionalize TQM. As the quality of management
varies in various subunits, this gap also varies. Quality of management means the
ability of top sections of the institution to
to the new TQM course and
take actions and make decisions that are stable
skills and team bond necessary for QM implementation, and
create a space
for open conversations about the progress in TQM transformation which will help
to learn and make further changes (Michael Beer, 2003).
The researches indicates that the major barriers
in implementing TQM are :
capital development and coordination
leadership and resources for TQM
lack of focus
and direction on customer
(Sebastianelli, R., & Tamimi,
N., 2003 & Bhat, K. S., & Rajashekhar, J., 2009).
If these barriers are properly analyzed
and understood, then it is possible to form a
structure to assess the relative significance of
management-related barriers for the success of TQM and to guide in developing policies for a
productive quality transformation.
The prime objective of TQM programs is to
improvise the Business performance by
supply quality management,
employee participation, recognition and reward
Oke, M. A., & Oke, O. D. (2014) suggested that
management should try to upgrade themselves on the different TQM practices in
order to face the competitive domain.
– Oke, M. A., & Oke,
O. D. (2014). Exploring the Link between Total Quality Management and Business
Performance. European Journal
of Business and Management, 6(9),
– H.C. Lau, M.A. Idris, (2001) “The soft foundation of
the critical success factors on TQM implementation in Malaysia”, The TQM
Magazine, Vol. 13 Iss: 1, pp.51 – 62
– Tata, J., & Prasad, S. (1998). Cultural and structural
constraints on total quality management implementation. Total Quality Management, 9(8), 703-710.
-Douglas, T. J., & Judge, W. Q. (2001). Total quality
management implementation and competitive advantage: the role of structural
control and exploration. Academy
of Management Journal, 44(1),
– H.C. Lau, M.A. Idris, (2001)
“The soft foundation of the critical success factors on TQM implementation
in Malaysia”, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 13 Iss: 1, pp.51 – 62