In addition to western medications, Japanese also use alternative therapies for pain management. These include “dietary supplements are is the most important, followed by aromatherapy, traditional Chinese medicine (Kampo), Ayurveda and electromagnetic fields. In addition to these domains, hot spring bathing, lifestyle drugs, anti-aging medicine and environmental medicine.” (Alvarado, 2008, p.27). Therefore, incorporating modalities of medicine into the plan of care may be useful in treating the illness when possible. Another behavior that the healthcare provider must be aware of is stoicism (no emotions) in Japanese clients.  Thus, it is healthcare provider’s duty to “educated on the necessity of treating pain. It may be appropriate to have pain medications scheduled for those that hold this belief.” (Arvada, 2008, p.31).

All in all, we have discussed throughout the paper how essential it is for the healthcare provider is to educate oneself about the client’s culture in order to provide the right treatment. This is achieved by understanding the concepts of pain in regard to the client’s culture. As mentioned previously pain is subjective, therefore, the treatment plan should be individualized from client to client. For instance, A study by Yamada (2006) found alternative therapies such as Kampo which “is holistic medicine wherein mind and body are regarded as unified, and the aim of Kampo is harmonization of the disordered whole individual. Moreover, Kampo is philosophical, empirical, synthetic, humanistic, pre-diagnosis, tailored and subjective medicine.” (Yamada, 2006, p.799)., have shown to improve physical as well the psychological quality of life in Japanese participants. This can be achieved through actively engaging in the learning by asking a client about their culture and self-learning. Nursing is not about pushing medication, because that anyone can do if trained. It is about having compassion, kind approach, and empathy for our clients. 

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