In product or brand is not an

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In order for the
endorsement to be successful, credibility and attractiveness of celebrity is
very important. Credibility is represented by knowledge, skills and expertise
concerning the products while attractiveness includes likeability, familiarity
and similarity of celebrity with the products or brand. The credibility of the celebrity or the
spokesperson in an advertisement plays an important role in convincing the consumers
to purchase the product or consider the product for use. Consumers usually pays
more attention to the celebrities whom they like, know, and have expertise on
the product which a celebrity has endorsed (Hung, 2014).

Nevertheless, selecting a suitable and perfect
celebrity to endorse a product or brand is not an easy task. There are many
researches have been done so far in order to help on the construction of a
guideline model to select the endorser. Consumer’s perception of the
credibility of endorsers depends on expertise, knowledge and trust (Mikuláš
& Sv?tlík, 2016). When the celebrities have a higher credibility, consumers
will have positive effects on the purchase intention. Furthermore,
trustworthiness is also one of the aspect of credibility which help to reduce
the unfavorable feeling towards a brand.

Hovland and his associates has presented the
source-credibility model in year 1953. They analyzed the factors that led to
the perceived credibility of the communicator and determined that there are two
factors which are expertise and trustworthiness. Besides trustworthiness
and expertise, the attractiveness of the communication source can make the
effect of the message conveyed increase. In source of attractiveness model, it means
that the acceptance of an advertising message by the audience is based on
familiarity, likeability and similarity. Familiarity is defined as knowledge of
the celebrity through exposure in the media; likeability as affection for the
celebrity as a result of the celebrity’s physical appearance and/or behaviour;
and similarity as a supposed resemblance between the celebrity and the targeted
audience (Mc Cracken, 1989).

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Expertise refers
to the extent to which a communicator is perceived to possess knowledge,
skills, qualifications, or experience and is therefore considered to provide
accurate information. Trustworthiness refers to the audience’s confidence that
the source provides information in an objective and honest manner, and
attractiveness refers to how physically attractive, elegant, or likable the
source is to the audience. Therefore, endorsers who are perceived to be
knowledgeable, reliable, and attractive are considered credible, in
consequence, able to evoke consumers’ positive attitudinal and behavioural
responses to the brand and the product (Ohanian, 1991).

Shimp argues that celebrity endorsers are believed
by the consumers and audience due to the life they live professionally and
personally, as revealed to the general public through the mass media (Shimp,
2003).  From the research done by
Ingavale, the result revealed that preference of consumers in India for the
cosmetics endorsed by celebrities is influenced by trustworthiness, sense of
similarity between customer and celebrity, familiarity, likability, relevance
of celebrity to the product (Ingavale, 2016). Hence, advertisers are required
to consider those celebrities for their product endorsement who are
trustworthy, liked by consumers, familiar, and have relevance with product.

A research has
studied the impact of celebrity endorsement and has found that the expertise of a celebrity
endorser is not an important factor in influencing Malaysian young adults’
purchase intentions (Karen S. Freeman & Cathy C. Chen, 2015). Relatively
Malaysian young consumers are more emphasize on the physical attractiveness of
a celebrity followed by similarity and familiarity. Over half of the consumers
will purchase the product if they are more familiar with the celebrity.

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