In the study of the
relationship between age and depression using 2,031 U.S. adults and 809
Illinois adults, it was found that the level of depression is minimal in the
middle age and increases in late life. This is the implication of the
improvements and losses in marriage, work, and economic stability (Mirowsky & Ross, 1992). Researches on depression
ad birth order were also conducted. According to Zaidi (2010), the level of
depression in adults is higher with middle and last-borns than the first-borns.
Using a sample of 1428 elderly adults living in major
Chinese mainland cities, it was revealed that there is a significant
relationship between depressive symptoms and marital status. Nevertheless, this
relationship was facilitated by family support and friend support. The
experiences of depressive symptoms were more prevalent with widowed elderly
adults than the married ones possibly due to the reverse of the level of family
support. The perceived friend support had various effects on the depression
level of the adults with different marital statuses (Zhang & Li, 2011). In
addition, Roberts, Kaplan, Shema, and Strawbridge (1997) said that those who
are unmarried are at an increased risk of developing depression. When it comes
to religion, Bonelli, Dew, Koenig, Rosmarin, and Vasegh (2012) said that for some, religious beliefs and practices may aid in coping
better with stressful life events and provide hope and meaning. However, some religious
beliefs also may intensify guilt and discouragement for failing to live to the
high standards of their religious tradition for others. A longitudinal study
was conducted to assess the effect of religious and spiritual factors on depression.
Using 114 adult offspring of
nondepressed and depressed parents, it was revealed that those who gave high importance to religion or
spirituality had about one-fourth risk of experiencing major depression compared
to other participants. The protective effect was found primarily against recurrence rather than
onset of depression (Miller, 2010). 

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