In especially after the murder. Therefore, the external
In Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment, there is a conflicting stance on how morality and crime tie in together. Raskolnikov goes through a journey of self-discovery ties in with his moral views, known as the “Extraordinary Man Theory.” He uses this theory to justify him murdering Alyona Ivanovna and Lizaveta, believing that he could break moral transgressions because he would benefit the poor because she had so much. This conflicting view can be understood as the internal conflict because the idea of morality is weighed heavily within his thoughts, especially after the murder. Therefore, the external conflicts, poverty, and the sacrifices his family had to make for him implies that he could be the way he is because of his environment. This shows the connection between crime and morality because it connects the motives between each idea, as well as a prominent element within each idea, the Extraordinary Man Theory. Dostoevsky uses the Extraordinary Man Theory to connect crime and morality as they are presented as both external and internal conflicts.Raskolnikov’s view on morality becomes skewed due to the need of sacrifice from his desperate situation. Raskolnikov didn’t make much effort to get money, and gave people money to help with their desperation even though he was desperately broke, especially if he sees them making sacrifices to give back and provide for not only themselves, but for others as well. This emphasizes how he believed that murdering the pawnbroker would have benefited others because they would not have to continue making sacrifices for him.this comes from an extremely impoverished background, where marriage to improve economic status and poor, unthinkable jobs were taken just to provide for themselves. The motive for his murder, or him wanting to end suffering and sacrifice, is evident when he doesn’t allow Dunya (his sister) to marry Luzhin to increase their financial status, as well as when his mother does honest work for even the smallest amount of money, even though it makes her health worse off. This is also evident through Sonya, a prostitute that provides for her family because her father is an alcoholic, and her mother is very sick.He feels for those in poverty, especially when he protects the young prostitute who was almost taken advantage of by a man, and worries for other ones and his sister (women in general). The Extraordinary Man Theory ties into this because he believed that an extraordinary man, himself in this case, can transgress the law if it will benefit society. He also believes that men in the human race are submissive and therefore follow laws while extraordinary men can commit any crime. This is posed as an inner right that he decides in his own conscious because this crime could be an obstacle that stands in the way of a phenomenon, and the failure to discover such idea would not benefit society. The idea is to end suffering, and he uses examples of great men that do not follow laws to create new ideas to further emphasize how he needed to murder Alyona Ivanovna. He feels for those in poverty, especially when he protects the young prostitute who was almost taken advantage of by a man, and worries for other ones and his sister (women in general). Crime within the story is portrayed as an internal conflict where Dostoevsky attempts to decide whether illness causes someone to create a crime or a crime creates an illness. This is portrayed by Raskolnikov and a cause and effect relationship between his mind and the murders of his pawnbroker, Alyona Ivanovna and her sister, Lizaveta.Throughout the whole story, Raskolnikov is presented as sickly, or not right mentally and physically, because of the fact that his mind was in constant battle with himself. In the beginning of the story, he is described as someone so isolated and introverted when it states “He was so immersed in himself and had isolated himself so much from everyone that he was afraid not only of meeting his landlady but of meeting anyone at all.” (Dostoevsky, 3). In Raskolnikov’s case, the crime was committed out of desperation from poverty and he suffers from an illness as a result of the crime. However, he isolated himself and had a poor mindset before the murders, which could have been the underlying factors to his illness. Poverty could debatably be the underlying cause illness and the murder only strengthened it. He wanted to end suffering, or the theme of nihilism, which is evident in Part six and the epilogue, when he confesses. This argument is further strengthened throughout the story when he tries to constantly give back to the poor by providing money. Before the murder, he overheard a student and officer saying “‘Kill her and take her money, so that afterwards with its help you can devote yourself to the service of all mankind and the common cause’… ‘Of course, she doesn’t deserve to be alive,’…” (Dostoevsky, 65-66). Nihilistic concepts tricked his mind to follow the extraordinary man theory, further emphasizing his mental conflicts probably due to an illness, because he felt as if this crime was an action that could not be delayed any longer. Raskolnikov’s desperation strengthens his internal conflict because of his impoverished environment. Dostoevsky expresses Raskolnikov as desperate and sort of irresponsible, especially when he describes his impoverished environment and his attitudes towards his situation. He describes Raskolnikov’s desperation when he states “He was crushed by poverty; but even his strained circumstances had lately ceased to burden him.” (Dostoevsky, 3) Dostoevsky uses a dream, mentioned in part 1 chapter 5, about his childhood where a horse was murdered to foreshadow him murdering the pawnbroker, Alyona Ivanovna, and her half-sister, Lizaveta. This displays both his sympathy and his desperation. He felt for that horse and decided against the horrible deed of murdering her, but when he overhears an opportunity that he feels as his ‘only option,’ when Lizaveta says she will not be home during the time he was planning on committing murder. This dream further strengthens his Extraordinary Man Theory because his mental illness is making him believe that he is benefiting others by murdering someone, meaning he can transgress the laws dealing with murder because it will benefit a large amount of those suffering in poverty.Dostoevsky stems away from his connection between morality and crime by providing sense of redemption when Raskolnikov accepts his crime and jail time. He manages to lower his sentence because the jury was able to justify his reason for murder his insanity, and his lack of defense towards himself. This is evident when Dostoevsky states “The sentence nevertheless turned out to be more merciful than might have expected, given the crime committed, perhaps precisely because the criminal not only did not try to justify himself, but even seemed to show a desire to inculpate himself still more.” (Dostoevsky, 536), as well as the explanations given before and after that statement. He finally accepts that it’s wrong, which can express a character development of him finally coming into terms with his mental illness, or morality in general, and falls away from those delusions. Raskolnikov, in this sense, goes against extraordinary man theory, but does not outright reject it, he just realizes that he is not one (Part 6-Epilogue). Throughout the story, he goes from believing that he himself was an extraordinary man, like when he speaks to Porfiry and Sonya and when he “bows to humanity.”This is los evident when he pays for others, even though he is not well off himself. He begins to accept that his justification for murder was not that he is an extraordinary man because he did not benefit others and his mind (mental illness) made him believe so. However, he indirectly benefits others by loving Sonya because she helps him to become an honest man and helps his mind because he stops attempting to find justifications of the murder and isn’t as paranoid as he once was now that people know. He is believed to no longer have a battle going on in his mind, because he no longer feels guilty since he feels he has redeemed himself by acceptance.Dostoevsky first begins to connect crime and morality by naming Raskolnikov a derivative from “divided self” to describe his complex character and reflect it back to human nature itself, and further expresses it with the internal and external conflicts presented within the story. He expresses Raskolnikov’s views on morality by focusing on his desperation, as well as the suffering within his society to imply that he committed his crime because he had to. Dostoevsky also implies that his mental illness made him believe that all great men can commit crimes if it helps the majority. However, throughout the story he realizes that if the extraordinary man theory was applicable to man, it would not apply to him because he understands that he did not benefit others by killing the pawnbroker, but he benefits others in different ways, like when he provides for them since they are unable to do it themselves.