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In the year 1789, George Washington was elected the nation’s first president. The United States of America had just broken off from monarchist rule by Great Britain, and the founding fathers devised a governmental plan for the government, The Constitution. The Constitution set forth rules that the government, the people, and the states had to follow, it set up a fully functioning country. In the early days of our country there were not any political parties like there are nowadays. Some of our early leaders were happy that there weren’t any parties, because they believed that political parties would split the country and weaken support for the constitution. However, despite the opinion of the opposed, political parties evolved, and therefore sparked many arguments, and harsh opinions of the other party. They further brought forth the views on how to run the country. Although some may say that it was because of differing views on how to run the country, the rise of political parties in 1790 was caused by general distrust, disagreements on policies, and constitutional disagreements between the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties. The rise of political parties was created by general distrust among politicians. In his  memo written in 1790 Thomas Jefferson wrote, “…Hamilton was not only a monarchist, but in support of a monarchy based upon corruption.” (Document 1). This statement shows Jefferson’s apparent distrust because he believes that Hamilton is trying to bring back America into a pre-revolutionary state of Monarchy. This was a insult because, the American people fought a brutal Revolutionary War and lost many people for the cause of freeing themselves from a monarchy (OI). Jefferson is essentially saying that Hamilton’s ideas are the things that the people should fear and want to get away from. Not only is Jefferson saying that Hamilton is a Monarchist but he is saying that he wants a monarchy based on corruption, which is the same if not worse than what the American People fought to free themselves from. Jefferson is educating the public that because of Hamilton’s ideas, you must not trust him. In his letter to a friend, Alexander Hamilton wrote “….Mr. Madison, co-operating with Mr. Jefferson, is at the head of a faction, decidedly hostile to me and my administration; and actuated by views…submersive of the principles of good government, and dangerous to the union” (Document 2). Hamilton is stating that Jefferson’s ideas are dangerous to the union and are hostile to his party, which is a reason to not trust him. Hamilton also says that Jefferson is motivated by views that are subversive, or undermining, the principles of a good government, which is a reason to distrust him. Hamilton goes on to say “Mr. Jefferson displays his dislike of….funding the debt… respect to our foreign politics, the views of these men are… unsound and dangerous. They have a womanish attachment to France, and a womanish resentment against Great Britain.” (Document 2). In this statement Hamilton is saying that Jefferson and Madison don’t have the country’s, and the people’s best interest in their minds, because they dislike the idea of paying the huge debt that America that had after the Revolutionary War (OI), this isn’t in the countries/people’s best interests because, only when the debt is paid then can taxes be lowered and the people will have some financial ease , which is what people want. Hamilton also states that when tested against the opinions of foreign nations the views of Jefferson and his associates would be detrimental to the wellbeing of the United States. Hamilton also takes it a step further when he calls Jefferson and his associates women, which at the time women were heavily inferior to men, and for a man to be called a woman was a pretty serious insult. Because Jefferson’s ideas and his views, are in Hamilton’s opinion, dangerous to America, those are reasons, in Hamilton’s opinion, to not trust Jefferson and his associates, also the fact that Jefferson and Madison are on opposite political party than Hamilton, was a reason for Hamilton to distrust Jefferson, as it is with all opposing politicians. In President Washington’s The Farewell Address, he said “Let me…warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of the party….it agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one part against another…” (Document 4). In these statements Washington is warning against the distrust created by political parties. He says that Political Parties bring out jealousy and animosity with opposing politicians, which was a big part of the Federalists and democratic-republicans. The emotions of animosity and jealousy are causes of distrust amongst people. Once distrust is created in situation like this, the distrust grows and further rips apart the two parties.The rise of political parties was caused by disagreements on policies amongst politicians. In a letter, Thomas Jefferson writes “The excise tax is an infernal (hellish) one….the public’s detestation (hatred) of the excise tax is universal and has now associated it to a detestation of the government…” (Document 3). In this statement, Jefferson is expressing his hatred for Hamilton’s excise tax, he calls it a “infernal one”, which mean that he associates the tax with hell. Because Jefferson strongly disagrees with Hamilton’s governmental ideas, he disagrees with Hamilton’s policies. And says that his ideas lead to the people hating the government, which is why he strongly disagrees with his policies. In his letter to John Wise, Vice President Thomas Jefferson wrote “Two political Sects (parties) have arisen within the United States; the one…called Federalists, sometimes aristocrats or monocrats & sometimes Tories…the other are….Republicans, whigs” (Document 5). Jefferson is openly disagreeing with Hamilton and the federalists foreign policies when he calls them “Tories”, accusing them of being sympathetic to Britain. The views by Jefferson of Federalists as being Tories, shows that he disagrees with their foreign policies because he isn’t sympathetic towards Britain. Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans believed the Federalists were not justified in being sympathetic towards Britain because of the heavy taxes Britain placed on them during the time that America was a colony of Britain (OI). The opposing Federalists also disagree with the Democratic-Republicans foreign policies. In his letter to a friend, Alexander Hamilton wrote “Jefferson and his supporters are…unsound and dangerous. They have a womanish attachment to france and a womanish resentment against great Britain.” (Document 2). The Federalists are disagreeing with the Democratic-Republican foreign policies because the Republicans are sympathetic to France after fighting with them the Revolutionary War, and for signing the Treaty of Alliance on Feb 6, 1778 (OI). The federalists disagree with the Republicans being sympathetic to France because the Federalists are sympathetic towards Britain. They disagree with each others foreign policies because they are sympathetic with different foreign nations. They also disagree with the policies and taxes that the other side creates.Furthermore, the rise of political parties was caused by constitutional disagreements between the two parties. In a statement in favor of the Sedition Act of 1798, by John Allen, a Federalist Congressmen, he said “If ever there was a nation which required a law of this kind, it is this…look at certain papers printed in this city and elsewhere which print the most shameless falsehoods against the representatives of the people…The freedom of the press and opinions was never understood to give the right of publishing falsehoods and slanders, nor of exiting sedition, insurrections, and slaughter…” (Document 6). In this statement Congressmen Allen was defending the Sedition Act of 1798. one of the most outstandingly bad breaches of the U.S. Constitution in history, dangering liberty and freedom in the new nation. The Sedition Act, directly violated the people’s right of freedom of speech, the Sedition Act allowed the prosecution of individuals who voiced or printed what the government deemed to be spiteful remarks about the president or government of the United States.

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