In design. However, the focus of this article
In many cases, the person and the device must form a form of dialogue to establish the parameter setting of the operation. An example of this is how our use of a mobile phone may result in a change in its state. Based on this change, we will have a new operation. The interactive design was developed in response to the need to identify the most appropriate means of resolving the issue of this interaction. Today, interactive design is almost an integral part of any design. However, the focus of this article is to illustrate one of the design, service design features that are not as attractive as the product design. In many cases, the service is invisible and focused on the process. This means that service designers must analyse them in action. This is hard to achieve. This is why there has been no progress from research into service design, although it has seen a great degree of focus. The result is less knowledge and investment in service design than the product design. As a researcher, I am very interested in this. I decided to include service design as the theme of this article. Based on the existing research, I emphasized the particular nature of service design in terms of design and the value it supports. To achieve this the techniques that need to be applied in service design are further defined together with issues that need to be raised. This allows us to be positive about the direction of future studies. The traditional service design goal is to improve efficiency and reduce costs. Services are often defined as useful actions or work for others. In my opinion, the product actually serves the users. For example, the stove as a typical product provides the service of raising the temperature nearby so that the people around it do not feel cold. However, because of the invisible nature of the service, it is overlooked by many people. Services are complex and can be seen everywhere, go to the mall shopping, go to the bank for business, or even call customer service for communication, and we as individuals enjoy the service. The complexity of the services lies in their multidimensional nature of which only the “front page” is visible to use whereas, all other processed taking place “back stage” are invisible though they include the joint running of various operations. These organizations may not even come from the same area, or the same industry. On the other hand, the background to the client is the foreground to the clerk, and the backstage to the clerk is actually the forecourt of the other clerks, each with their own foreground and backstage. As a result, the dividing line between the foreground and the backstage in service is in fact multifaceted and ambiguous. (Norman, 2015) Explaining the bank’s service system in detail as an example, I went to the bank as I required proof of possession of the property in order to apply for a visa as an individual, all I could see was a clerk and his computer. Everything else is for me in the realm of the background, but the proof of possession cannot be done by a clerk, which requires the approval of the executive. This approval process afforded by the executive will probably occur at a different location and premise, one that cannot be seen by the clerk. Therefore, this is also in the context of clerks in the background. Service designers need to consider not only the customer but also the clerk, the assistant behind the scenes, and even the management boss when designing. This is a looping design in which the backstage of the service is of particular importance. When designing, consideration needs to be afforded to the delivery of the correct information to all individuals partaking in the service process while also ensuring knowledge of the business process. This ensures the simple and smooth flow of work (Mager, B., 2011). Design thinking is a very useful concept when designing services, and before you do anything else, you must decide what the real problem is. Customer requests for design often only respond to what they see and what the problem is. What service designers need to do to find potential problems and accidents is the root cause of the problem. (Kurokawa, T., 2015) IDEO’s design thinking model provides a framework for service design to identify the key attributes of service design and its core requirements. The design thinking model is composed of five parts: empathise, define, ideate, prototype and test (IDEO, 2008). (design thinking process) Empathy is a customer-centric approach to design. It involves the examination of consumer requirements while learning from consumer queries and aims. Such analyses result in the formation of products and the avoidance of issues of deviation and surveys. Furthermore, it substantially reduces the chances of consumers providing one-sided or even fake information. The most common example is the use of rounded corners and right angles in our lives. Rounded corners are often used in places where people often touch hands, such as sofas, bathrooms, switches, etc., reducing the risk of being knocked down and giving people a smooth, easy-to-close feeling. Different angles and fillers, and more for doors and windows, safes and other places in need of security, giving a person a solid, stable product leaving no feeling of a gap. Providing service design is difficult to achieve as not only must one ensure the consumer is satisfied with the use of the product but they must also ensure the design specifics are not visible. There are ways to fully understand the customer’s feelings (for example, when designing for the blind, live in both eyes), have a basic understanding of the situation, and then further explore the inconvenience of customers in the use of services, in order to accomplish even greater changes (Djt, 2014). Previously, designers identified emphases through empathy to identify core issues. The “define” factor describes a merging form. The issues that arise are separated into specifics and this is followed by the manufacture of outcomes based on the requirements and visions determined. The biggest difference from the previous step is that with the “define” process, you require the designer’s own unique view, that is, POV, which will have a significant impact on the design process. Applying this model to service design, designers need to be clear about the problems they are currently solving and to summarize the complicated information. At the same time, communicating with clients and setting forth a specific, compelling question statement will be a springboard to the ultimate solution. The next stage is the “ideate” phase. At this point vision is key. To envisage the drafts of several solutions is a must and this is supplemented by cross-cutting discussions. Service designers use flowcharts, easy scene painting, and short film clips to interpret the views on service process design. Following the discussion, several interesting programs were voted out, and then entered the prototype design stage, designers can use scripts, and various ways to shape the flow and use of services, that are constantly revised and improved, until finalized. As for the actual operation stage, the design is implemented by various technologies that can be used. Owing to its invisibility, virtual tests can be run using internal staff acting as clients and following recurring trials and amendment of details. Finally, the single most important step is to move onto the market and search for potential users to experience the service. This allows for additional constructive feedback. First, focus groups can be assembled with a small group of people whose characteristics are as close as possible to the target population (the target population is the one who uses the service in the future). Let these people experience the service as close as possible to the way they are actually used. Focus groups as a test method is useful and efficient. Under limited conditions, many people participate in the test, and their ideas, assumptions and obstacles encountered can be discussed openly and naturally. On the other hand, the designer team should observe it all the time and carefully observe it without affecting the tested person. Video recording or recording is particularly valuable, you can leave for review after repeated. Through the varied literature reviews conducted and through my own personal analysis, I find the design of services can be summarized to two points: To conduct a systematic design At LICA241’s workshop, the speaker provided an example of her personal experience and participation. Chongming island is a region of Shanghai yet it remains in a condition of underdevelopment. That said, the environment of Chongming island more closely resembles the true ecosystem of the region (even possessing bird sanctuaries), this is in contrast to the cosmopolitan city of Shanghai. After investigating residents of Chongming Island, the speaker and her team found that the main problem was the gap between the inhabitants of Chongming Island and the residents in the bustling Shanghai area. This gap was too large, resulting in a gap in communication. The speaker took full account of the different needs on both sides, designed an app in which city-runners place orders for fruits and vegetables via app, farmers receive information through terminals, prepare vegetables, and negotiate ways with the traders to receive these vegetables; whether by the city people driving over to collect it or by the farmers sending out the fruit and vegetable. The core message of this example is that in designing for services, the plan should take account of the service as a whole thereby ensuring that all processes are accounted for. If each part is designed in isolation, the end result is that individual parts do not work well together. Here again, let me give an example of what I observed to illustrate the success of service design: Domino as a fast-food restaurant based in Pisa, is a service system that runs through the entire customer experience (George Gabriel, 2016). When an order is placed using the domino app, the page jumps to a cartoon image, which informs the customer of each of their steps and estimates their time on the service. From my point of view, the cartoon image is lively and fun, and I can clearly see where my order went. Domino will then wait to translate into a positive experience. This example emphasises the need for a high-quality service to be both sociable and designed with the user in mind. (George Gabriel, 2016) Designing for all experiences The serviceman must value the well-being and comfort of the staff, just as they also consider the needs of the customer. Efficient service design is based on people management rather than technology. Thus, it is crucial that during training, staff are taught to work on their own, to aid clients through the service, while also priding themselves in working for the service. The service blueprint is a way to show both the time flow and the depth of interaction. Susan Spraragen adds the customer’s emotional state to the service blueprint. The “dotted line” around the icon indicates the degree of frustration the customer feels, and the greater the “dotted line” the stronger the sense of frustration. Customer’s vertical position on the page indicates satisfaction with service delivery (the closer the distance to the line, the more intimate the customer feels). This blueprint shows exactly where each transaction has progressed and indicates the steps that need to be completed. However, this is not enough, and we also need to include the emotional state of the staff, like the emotional states of those clients. (Lin, R. et al., 2013) (Emotional Service Blueprint) For example, the Hidilao hot pot is a Chinese hot pot restaurant. Compared to any hot pot, this home service is more famous. One core reason for this is the special treatment clients are afforded there by the staff. If you go to this restaurant without a reservation, there is no doubt that you will wait a long time. Nonetheless, to aid this wait, staff at reception have provided a range of amusement tools. There are nail services, computers, drinks and billiards and so on. All these come for free. Such attentive service continues to the duration of the food consumption. I have personally experienced this and it is no exaggeration that his family’s fruit is delicious When it started to operate, many felt that it would lose money because the service appeared not to be directly proportional to the return it received. However, it is now becoming one of the best hot pot restaurants in China. This has an inseparable relationship with the attitude of his family. In the design of this service a lot of attention was clearly applied. This also included the selection of staff at interview. Hidilao hot pot employees have indicated that the training they receive is empathetic and leads to the provision of the guests with a more enjoyable experience. This also ensures that the staff will attend work and enjoy it while there (Wenxuecity, 2016). Design difficulties From the design point of view, the hardest part of designing is figuring out the right design requirements. I agree with Norman that only by observing the customer experience in the natural state of service, can produce the correct and effective design requirements. Finding the right design needs requires frequent customer research and testing. It’s a cyclical process, and with each iteration, ideas get clearer, the needs are better defined, and the sample gets closer to the goal. As a cyclic service design, when can we be done to complete the design? In Norman’s book, it’s often up to the product manager, who not only needs high-quality service processes, but also time planning. In product development, time and cost are very important constraints that design teams have to meet to meet these requirements while making designs that are also acceptable to the customer. (Norman, 2015) Service design is still in its infancy, with great room for growth. As an organized and systematic method of “defining problems” and “solving problems,” its thinking is gradually gaining people’s attention. In contrast, there are many challenges in service design. Unfortunately there aren’t many persuasive examples of service design as it is still at the research phase. More ideas are written on paper than real ones, because service design differs from product design in how much of its effectiveness needs to be verified over time. At the same time, there are still some customers who have a hard time understanding the concepts of service design, such as manufacturing, who think they offer products rather than services. This leads designers of service to adjust their means of communication. Not only that, but also a clear framework needs to be provided for the client if the designer presents the design in the form of an experience map. Some companies will mention KPIs from the beginning, and it is unreasonable to discuss KPIs from the very beginning of the design. What is needed is the participation and cooperation of both parties to complete the service design. From a market perspective, the market demand is diversified. Take the Chinese market as an example. This is a massive market that it complicated both at the cultural and geographical levels so as to surpass our imagination. From first-tier cities (for Shanghai) to rural markets (Chongming Island), consumer sophistication and business perception are all very different, which also affects consumer perception of service design. To conclude, service design can be the standard means of operation through varied departments. It can not only consider the interaction between customers and employees more systematically, but also consider whether the operation modes within the enterprise can be implemented. Service design can be thought of as the connection spanning the distance between the business and the client. IDEO’s five-step design thinking proves that it is also important to have a good design team to encourage cross-cutting discussions and build a diverse community. In this team, designers uphold the “people-oriented” goal, ensuring they operate from the perspective of stakeholders in the design, rather than just from the designer’s perspective. There is also a need to underline the importance of the detail of the design. All aspects of service design should be fully considered, and the weakest link will often greatly reduce the overall experience of pleasure.