In growth, these include a warm temperature. This

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In a bacterial cell, there are many parts which
help to make up the structure of it, each have their own unique function to aid
the bacterial cell.

Capsule: it protects the inside of the cell from
engulfment, also contains water which protects it from desiccation.

They are the little hairs which connect to things and other surrounding

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Cell wall: It has a semi-ridged wall for
protection and it keeps its shape

Plasma membrane: It is semi permeable, and it
allows nutrients through the cell however they cannot be too large otherwise
they won’t fit.

Nucleoid: It is where the DNA is contained and
has no certain structure.

Ribosome: This is where protein synthesis occurs

Cytoplasm: The jelly like substance which holds
everything together in the cell

Flagellum: It has a tail which helps the cell to
move around.

reproduce by binary fission which is an asexual type of reproduction. During
this process, the single cell bacterium divides into two daughter cell which
are completely identical. For bacteria to grow they have certain conditions
which they require for optimum growth, these include a warm temperature. This
is important because they have adapted to reproduce in human and animal body
temperatures which are higher. They also need moist conditions because the
bacteria use the water to dissolve the food that they use for growth.  Not all bacteria need oxygen to grow however
if they do it is called aerobic respiration and if the bacteria do not need
oxygen it is called anaerobic respiration. Due to the warmth, the bacterium can
reproduce at a high rate and spread throughout the body and contaminate. This
means that if the conditions were colder, lower than body temperature, then the
salmonella bacterium would not be able to reproduce and grow as quickly
compared to in warm moist conditions.


Types of Bacterium


Transmission of salmonella occurs by it entering
the body by the ingesting of contaminated food, this could be due to under
cooked food or food poisoning from animals such as live stock. This is because
the salmonella living in the intestines of the animal where it infects the
insides which causes it is usually transmitted to humans through eating the
contaminated food. Salmonella invades the bloodstream which means that the
vital organs are venerable to the secretion of toxins.

Animals can be affected by salmonella through the excretion of feaces
and in the saliva and can cause fevers, the animal to lose their appetite,
diarrhea and abdominal pain. Most animals are carriers of salmonella and are
asymptomatic however they
can become infected.

The symptoms of salmonella include the animal having a fever, diarrhea,
vomiting uncontrollably, being blood in its stool and lethargy.

Salmonella can be treated by removing any contaminated food, giving the
animal plenty of water do they do not become more dehydrated and giving them
dry food to eat.



Bordetella in animals is also known as kennel

Bordetella can transmit in several ways which
includes via famites, respiratory aerosol droplets and via direct contact.

The pathogenesis is that the bacterium multiply
and spread throughout the respiratory tract, this causes a release of toxins
into the respiratory tract which can cause the cilia, which clears the mucus
and dirt from the lungs, to paralyses, this means that the respiratory tract inflames so that there is
interference with clearing the tract causing a buildup of dirt which influences
the coughing.

Some of the
effects on an animal which has include a large amount of coughing, nasal
discharge which is watery, retching and heaving and general discomfort.

To treat
Bordetella, antibiotics could be used as well as administrating cough suppressants
to minimalize coughing which help the infected animal be more comfortable








A virus is a biological agent that reproduces
inside of cells of living hosts, viruses reproduce at a fast rate.




Functions of the virus

Genome: For gene transcription, translation and
regulation of gene expression and protein interactions

Capsid: protects the nucleic acid from digestive
enzymes, allows the virus to attach to a host cell and provides proteins

Capsome: outer covering of protein that protects
the genetic material

Nucleocapsid: Binds the proteins

Growth and reproduction

For a virus to grow it needs to be inside of a
living cell and must have a host cell to survive so that it can replicate.
Viruses by attaching itself to a specific host cell, where it then injects its
genetic material into the host cell. This causes the host cell to use the
genetic material to make new viruses which causes the host cell to split open
which causes more viruses in the body which pass out into the bloodstream so that
they spread quickly throughout the body.

Most viruses transmit through touching and coming into
contact with contaminated objects and possessions which already contain the
virus, they also can be transmitted by coming into contact with a person or
animal that has the virus. Finally, it can be transmitted by inhaling the virus
which is in the air.

Viruses thrive better in winter than summer
because on the viruses outer covering (envelope) becomes a hard shield for the
virus due to the cold temperatures turning the rubber like gel harder which
makes it stronger so it is able to pass from animal to animal and person to
person. However, in the summer, the envelope isn’t as solid as it liquefies and
the protective gel starts to melt. This means that the virus is more exposed to
getting treated and killed as the protective barrier isn’t working as
efficiently which means that’s it cannot spread as easily.


Types of virus

Feline influenza

This virus is an upper respiratory tract issue
which takes over the cells and reproduces. This virus is extremely fatal to
cats which have weaker immune systems such as kittens and older cats, this is
because their immune systems is not fully developed or that it is growing older
and not working as effectively.

Feline influenza can be spread through the air,
touching and contaminated equipment. This virus is very hard to treat as there
are not many anti-viral vaccinations which work as efficiently, this means that
the virus will most likely be in the felines system for the majority of its

The feline can display many symptoms of feline
influenza, some of which include sneezing more than usual, coughing a lot and
having discharge from the eyes and nose. Some more symptoms include a high body
temperature, loss of appetite, raspy or congested-sounding breathing, lethargy
and generally subdued behavior.



Canine parvovirus

This type of virus spreads via direct nasal
contact and through oral contact with infected animal feaces. It can also be
transmitted through objects which may have been in contact with infected feaces
such as the grass in a public area, bedding, food and water bowls. This virus
can live for a very long time which makes it more dangerous, for example it can
live in a public place for up to 6 months which enables it to grow and spread
for a longer period of time.

This virus attacks the cells in the body which
divide at a rapid rate; this affects the intestines which mean they are unable
to absorb the vital nutrients which are very important in their diets. This
virus attacks the dog’s white blood cells when they are younger and as they
have developing immune systems so this is fatal for them.

Some of the symptoms of canine parvovirus
include weight loss and anorexia, vomiting with a high fever, diarrhea and










Cell wall: It has a semi-ridged wall for
protection and it keeps its shape

Nucleus: It is where the DNA is contained and
has no certain structure.

Ribosome: This is where protein synthesis occurs

Cytoplasm: The jelly like substance which holds
everything together in the cell

Cell membrane: controls the movement of the cell
and what does in and out.

Mitochondria: the respiration in cells.


Fungi can reproduce both asexually and sexually.
During the asexual process, reproduction can happen by fragmentation which is
the colonizing of organisms; it can also reproduce by budding which is when an
out growth is developed which will grow. Finally, fungi can reproduce asexually by producing spores which are
carried by the rain and wind and where they land in the ground is where the
cell germinates.

There are
multiple types of fungi which all have different conditions for which they like
to grow in, for example, some like to grow in warm and moist conditions as it
is optimum temperatures in soil however some like to grow in cold places such
as fridges and freezers. They grow at a PH of 4-5 which is acidic.



Examples of fungi

Microsporum canis

This fungus reproduces asexually and it is a fungal disease which  the ring worm feeds on dead layers of skin which
causes inflammation of the skin, hair loss and bumps across the body.

This fungus is transmitted from
animals to humans through contact with animal’s belongings and things they have
come in contact with such as hair combs, bedding, water bowls and furniture. A
major risk is coming into contact with the damaged skin cells, nails and hair.

For the animal with this fungus,
it can cause a lot of stress and discomfort as they are constantly scratching
the skin to try to ease them but it makes it worse.

To treat this fungus a special
shampoo can be given which sooths he skin, cutting the hair may also be needed
to eliminate any scratching which would make it worse



This type of fungus is mainly
found in places such as straw, grass, dust and most environmental substrate.
This causes disease




























A parasite is an organism which lives on or in
an organism of another species which is known as the host.


Transmission of ticks occurs by the ticks using
their legs to hold onto a substrate such as grass and leaves



























Part B

There are some key parts which have functions in
order for the immune system to respond and work well. These include;

Lymph nodes act as a filter from harmful
substances as they contain immune cells that help to fight infection in the
body. In this filter, the bacteria and unwanted substances are trapped and
destroyed by lymphocytes which are white blood cells. They are found throughout
the body and some of the main places which they live in is in your neck, chest,
underarms stomach and groin, you have hundreds of them across these places. In
these places the lymph nodes can swell which indicates what the problem is in
the body so they can treat the bacteria

Tonsils are located at the back
of your throat and their role is to prevent bacteria and viruses from entering
the throat and body by producing white blood cells, this defensive is usually
the first one to be activated. When a bacterium or a virus has been trapped by
the tonsils, they usually swell up because they have been infected by the

The spleen is located in the
abdominal on the left side and has many roles in the immune system. One of
which is to filter the blood and remove the old and damaged red blood cells so
that the ones left are able to get through the capillaries successfully. The
spleen also controls disease in the body and it does this by filtering the
bacteria out and it also produces anti bodies which detect harmful substances.

Bone marrow has the function of
producing the three types of blood cells which are red blood
cells, platelets, and most of the white blood cells. The yellow bone
marrow produces fat, cartilage, and bone. Lymphocytes are also made
inside our bone marrow which is an important part of the immune system.

Thymus gland contains hormones and this is where
the T-cells are made and developed to become mature so the pathogen can be
attacked correctly.


Types of immunity


Innate means when
you are born with something, this means that you already have it in your body
and it is natural. This type of immunity is non-specific and can respond
quickly because it doesn’t target specific pathogen which means it can start up
quickly and prevent the spread of germs. In the innate immune system the main
components include lymphocyte cell, plasma proteins, dendritic cells,
phagocytic leukocytes and physical epithelial barriers.

This type of
immunity produces antigens in a short time period for the host which means that
the pathogen is removed quicker these mechanisms include physical barriers such
as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack
foreign cells in the body. This type of immunity does not provide long lasting
immunity because it works quicker to get it done and the pathogen removed.





Adaptive immunity

Adaptive immunity is
slower than innate immunity because it has to create memory cells so that if
the foreign pathogen comes into contact with the body again, it is able to
produce the memory cells to fight the pathogen without having to recreate
another copy which is only short term whereas this type of immunity is more
long term. However it does take longer to create but it is more effective. This
immunity is more advanced because it is able to know the difference between the
good cells and the enemy cells which are harmful to the body. This type of
immunity contains advanced lymphatic cells.

Natural passive

This type of
immunity is a maternal defense which is passed through to the baby via the
placenta. The baby receives antibodies which help their immature immune systems
develop and become stronger against any possible pathogens. There are no
specific antibodies which the baby will receive; it is dependent on what
vaccines the mother had which influences the antibodies being transferred.
During the first 24 hours, the baby will also receive nutrients and vitamins
from the colostrum which is vital for the growth and development of the infant.

Natural active

This type of
immunity occurs when an individual comes into contact with a live pathogen, not
through choice for example not through vaccinations where you are supplied with
a weakened version of the pathogen. The B-cells produce anti-bodies to aid
defending against the microbes. The cell mediated responses start to happen and
this is when T-cells are activated which means they are able to recognize the
cells which have been taken over by the virus and kill them.


This type of
immunity is when a person or animal is injected with antibodies from someone
who has already been infected with a pathogen. This is a short term method, of
around 2 weeks, because the immune system doesn’t become activated so no memory
cells had been made which means that if you needed the response then it could
be regularly administrated to receive the anti-bodies.


This type of
immunity is introducing a weakened version of a pathogen through immunization
which is the process of developing immunity through being vaccinated. Once you
have been vaccinated with the pathogen, the antigens cause a production of
anti-bodies due to the immune system which had been stimulated by the foreign
pathogen. Once the antibodies had been produced, memory cells were creates so
that if there were another intake of pathogen, the body can react quicker as
the memory cells would be used which makes it efficient. Also, by using the
memory cells it prevents the development of symptoms as they work quickly.







Key causes of

There are
different causes of diseases which have many factors which determine how they
spread. For example not washing your hands after sneezing, this causes diseases
to spread because everything that had been touched would be contaminated and as
a result it could easily be passed on to people and animals.




The responses of the immune system can
influence the symptoms of diseases by limiting them and reducing the amount
displayed. This is due to the production of antibodies which          




















Part C





Categories: Behavior


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