In 1608, Samuel Champlain explored the St. Lawrence River and founded a
trading post that became city of Quebec.


In 1540, Francisco Vasquez de
Coronado leads an expedition to search for the legendary Seven Golden
Cities of Cibola.


In 1682, Rene Robert Calelier explored
the Mississippi River, reaching its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico. Also claimed
the entire Mississippi River Valley for France, naming the territory

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In 1493, Juan Ponce de Leon explored
Florida looking for gold but was unsuccessful, joined Columbus’s second voyage
to the New World.


In 1513, Vasco Nunez de Balboa reached
the Pacific Ocean which he claimed for Spain, led a group of men through the
jungle after hearing stories of a great ocean and gold.


In 1531, Francisco Pizarro led
an expedition that reached present day Peru, also conquered the Inca Empire and
claimed all the land for Spain.


In 1534, Jacques Cartier
became the first European to sail across what he named the Pacific Ocean.


In 1539, Hernando de Soto led
an expedition that began in what is now Florida, also helped Pizarro in the
conquest of the Incas.


In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan
looked for a Northwest Passage to Asia but found the St. Lawrence River


In 1645, an ancient mathematician Hipparchus invented Astrolabe which is one of the oldest of all the altitude measuring
devices; it is an angle-measuring tool.


In 200, the lateen sails gave it speed and the capacity for sailing windward (beating). Caravels
were used by the Portuguese for the oceanic exploration voyages during
the 15th and 16th centuries.


 In 1040, magnetic
compass was a compass that
had a magnetized needle supporting a magnetic
card. This compass showed from
four to eight directions.


In the invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg was a major technological
breakthrough. Prior to Gutenberg’s
press, books were copied out by hand, generally by members of the
church, and so news was slow to travel

In 100, the Chinese
continued to use the steering oar
long after they invented the rudder,
since the steering oar still had
limited practical use for inland rapid-river travel

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