IMPLEMENTATION a fund established in 2003 through the

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October 2017



I declare that
this work has not been previously submitted and approved for the award of a
degree by this or any other University.




…………………………………                     Date:



This project
proposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as university

Mr. Eli Kang’aru



………………………………….                      Date:








the advent of ever evolving technology students need a proper system which is
able to provide information about application dates and allow students to apply
for a bursary anywhere.  

­This research project is
aimed at developing an online system which is able to allow enumerator to keep
records of students both in secondary and college including their parent’s
details. The system will be able to allow students to apply for a bursary
anywhere as opposed to the current system in which student could only apply by
filling the forms and taking them to bursary offices.





of Contents
1.1Background Information. 5
1.1.1 Historical background. 5
1.1.2 Contextual background. 6
1.1.3 Theoretical background. 6
1.1.4 Conceptual background. 6
1.2 Problem Statement 7
1.3 Objectives. 7
1.3.1 General objectives. 7
1.3.2 Specific objectives. 7
1.3.3   Hypothesis. 8
1.4 Project Justification. 8
1.5 Project Scope. 8
2.1 Introduction. 9
2.2. Disbursement criteria of SEBF and its effectiveness on
enhancing retention and access in secondary school. 9
2.3. Challenges in the financing of Secondary and higher
Education Bursary Fund. 11








Historical background

An historical analysis of
the patterns and trends of education financing in Kenya and other countries
reveals existence of a partnership between the state, households, and
communities, long before the introduction of the cost-sharing policy by the

In the
cost-sharing strategy, the government finances educational administration and
professional services, while the communities, parents and sponsors, provide
physical facilities, books

and supplementary
readers, stationery and other consumables. Constituency development funds is a
fund established in 2003 through the act of the parliament .the act was later
reviewed through the amendment 2007.the fund is domiciled within the ministry
in charge of national economic policy and planning, currently the ministry of
devolution and planning.

Contextual background

The Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology (MoES) a bursary scheme at secondary
school and college level as part of, and within the auspices of the Social
Dimensions of Development Programme, targeting the poor and vulnerable
households. The major objective of the scheme is to enhance access to, and
ensure high quality secondary school education and higher education for all
Kenyans. The philosophy behind the scheme was to translate into reality the
idea that no child who qualifies for secondary education and higher education
should be denied access due to inability to pay school fees.

The ministry of
education releases bursary application forms through the Area Education
Officers (AEOs) which are to be filled by parents and Needy students. Details required
in the form include academic background of the student, family background
including family size, economic status (family annual income) and family type
(orphan, non-orphan, single parent). Details are given on fees payment and any
outstanding balances.


Theoretical background


The ministry
emphasizes on student performance and discipline. The bursary application form
has to be signed by the chief or religious leader and the school head before
submission to the constituency bursary fund committee (Njeru and Orodho, 2003).the
main purpose of the fund is to enhance socio-economic development at national
level in order to reduce poverty by dedicating a minimum of two and a half of
annual revenue towards supporting education sector (ruodh 2003).


Conceptual background

bursary management system also known as e-bursary system  formerly constituencies development funds
which enables students to to keep their details in the site’s databases upon
which the enumerator can use as a basis for considering the needy students.
This system can also enable student’s access to the application forms online as
well as the application dates. The fund is managed by the national government constituencies’
development board which is a corporate body with perpetual succession and
common seal. The body operates at national level and comprised of board of
directors and a secretariat




Problem Statement

Despite the
rationale for the introduction of bursaries as safety-nets in the education
sector, there are increasing concerns regarding their ability and sensitivity
in cushioning the income to poor and vulnerable groups. Major concerns are in
regard to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology bursary scheme’s
weak administrative systems as evidenced by delays in communicating the bursary
awards to beneficiaries; questionable bursary eligibility criteria. Thus, more
than half of population living below the poverty line, and the rising cost of
education, majority of households, especially among the poor and the vulnerable
groups, are unable to access the benefits accruing from investment in the
development of quality secondary and college education.


General objectives

To develop an online student’s bursary system to provide information
about application dates and allow students to apply for bursary anywhere.


i) To come up with system
which allows enumerator to keep records of students both in secondary and
college including their parent’s details.

ii) To reduce
disparities and inequalities in the provision of secondary and higher education
bursary by coming up with a system which enable admin to verify, approved all
eligible student and award them base on parent details submitted by enumerator.

iii) To develop online system which is able
to provide information about bursary application dates and allow students to
apply for bursary anywhere  as opposed to
current system in which student could only apply by filling the form and taking
to bursary offices.

iv) To design user friendly online student’s bursary
management system interface.


i) If the system allows enumerator to keep records, then the system
should keep student’s record both in secondary and college including their parent’s

ii) If disparities and inequalities exist, then the system should enable
the admin to verify, approve all eligible student and award them based on
parents details submitted by enumerator.

iii) If the system provide information about bursary application dates,
then it should allow students to apply for bursary anywhere as opposed to
current system in which student could only apply by filling form and taking to
bursary offices.

iv) If the interface is well designed, then the system should be user

Project Justification

a successful completion and implementation of this project, system will keep
records of all students in constituency. Base on records in the database, it
will be easier to determine eligible student. System will allow eligible to
apply bursary will be able to do their application online with ease. System
will solve Issue of delay communication through online updates. Moreover,
applicant will be rest assured that no amount of online threat from hacker and
other attackers can penetrate their account even when their password is

This application uses a
multi-level security measure to ensure that customers’ personal details and
account information are safe.

Project Scope

Bursary Needs assessment system provides
an interface for bursary applicant, administration and enumerator who records
details about the students in the database in constituency. Admin will be able
to verify student details based on enumerator’s data in database. Applicants
register and log in to apply for bursary and also check information such as
date of application. Applicant is able to confirm whether there application
were successful or not. The system will also provide online upload of
individual document for verification such as national identification card,
letter from school and area chief. Admin on the other hand is able to view
applicant information, update website information, allow applicant to change
their profile and to notify online those who have qualified/ benefited from
bursary. Applicant is able to download qualification notification.










2.1 Introduction

This chapter
covers review of literature related to the study. Literature is first given on
a review on disbursement of secondary and higher education bursary fund (SHEBF)
in Kenya and other countries is provided. Literature on studies on
effectiveness of bursaries on enhancing access and retention is provided. A
review of studies on challenges in the disbursement procedures of SEBF is

2.2. Disbursement criteria of SEBF
and its effectiveness on enhancing retention and access in secondary school.

A study
by Fedha Flora (2008) states that guidelines from Ministry of Education
stipulates that there are factors to be borne in mind by constituency bursary
fund committee when they allocate bursaries to students. The following status
has to come out clearly as the main factors to be considered during the award
of bursaries:

Whether the applicant was a
total orphan

 Whether the applicant was a Needy child of
poor parents


The study
will try to establish whether this is the case followed in Juja constituency.

Not many
studies have been conducted to find out the impact of constituency bursary fund
on retention. One of the studies identified was conducted by Kirigo (2008), to
assess the effectiveness of bursaries on enhancing retention in secondary
schools in Mombasa District. The study established that schools and
constituency bursary committee in Mombasa District followed the laid down
criteria and that 42% of the deserving students received bursaries, 60% whom
were female. Kirigo further established that bursary fund had no significant
impact on the retention in Mombasa District, based on the fact that 53.3% of
those who received bursaries were sent home over three times due to inadequacy
of funds set aside for bursary and unpredictability of the funds.

Ngware, Onsomu, Muthaka
and Kosimbei (2006) conducted a study to examine strategies for improving
access to secondary education in Kenya. They concluded that persistently,
low participation rates from low income households indicates that the bursary
fund has limited impact on ensuring that the beneficiaries are adequately
supported for a full cycle. Consequently, they proposed that the government
initiative in decentralizing and reviewing bursary funds management to
constituency level should be closely monitored. Clear guidelines should be
developed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in order to increase access to
secondary education. Further they suggest that there is no address to income
inequalities in the society, and that a special assistance scheme and
preferential policies should be developed to target vulnerable groups such as
students from marginalized communities, those with special Needy and orphaned
and vulnerable children.

In Kenya Orodho and Njeru
(2003) and Mellen (2004) have carried out researches on government bursary.
From the results of the studies the government bursary fund is yet to achieve
its main objective of ensuring access and quality education. These two
researches were carried out when the bursary fund disbursement was directly under
the heads of schools and B.O.G currently it is being disbursed at constituency
level thus the Needs for such a study as this will find out if the findings
could be the same.

2.3. Challenges in the financing of
Secondary and higher Education Bursary Fund

Studies by
Njeru and Orodho (2003) and Mellen 2004 have evaluated the students’ bursary
fund scheme and found out that the funds are not effective generally and are
strained with defaults. They all underscore the importance of reviewing the
scheme in order to determine whether the objectives are being achieved
especially after the increase in bursary awards so far little
has been done to seek the opinions of the beneficiaries of the bursaries
regarding its effectiveness in achieving its objective of enhancing equity,
retention, and access in secondary education. This gap is worthy bridging.

The reviewed studies have
focused more on the government and its administrative procedures as the main
constraints in implementation. This research intends to go further and find out
if there are any other constraining factors. Based on this therefore, this
study will seek to investigate the effects of secondary school bursary on
access and retention in Juja constituency. Flora Fedha (2008) though experts
support the decentralization of bursary, again this criteria has many problems.
There have been complains that bursaries given to constituencies by the
government were being used for political purposes instead of assisting the
poor. Some M.Ps picked their friends to manage
constituency bursary fund such that only their supporters benefited. Thus
politicians, who infiltrate them with their cronies, had hijacked the
composition of Constituency Bursary Committee. They in turn configure the
disbursement to benefit those in the politicians camp (Daily Nation 14th Feb,

critical issues are to do with the time factor in that it takes long for the
beneficiaries to receive the money and that there are no compelling
instructions that enjoin committees to adhere to given rules. From a study by
IPAR entitled education financing in Kenya secondary school bursary scheme
implementation and challenges (2003) it was clear that the bursary fund
introduction, as part of the safety nets in cushioning the poor and vulnerable
was a noble policy goal, but it has not been effective and efficient in meeting
its objectives.

From the
study, the following issues were raised; The MOEST has not created a legal and
conducive relationship with local communities via establishment of competent
BOG and PTA to deal with school management especially financial management;
MOEST lacked any monitoring system, hence some heads replaced names of needy
students with those of their choice; Structural weakness in administration
systems as evidenced by delays in disbursement on remittance of funds to some
schools, delays in communicating the awards to beneficiaries. Based on the above issue it was
recommended that MOEST should increase the current funding levels, establish
clear guidelines regarding the socio-economic categorization of those to
benefit from the bursary fund award, ensure that schools are guided on how to
evolve ‘fees’ waiver mechanism” as well as income generating activities in
order to enhance access and retention to secondary education by the poor and
vulnerable, ensure that the funds are released promptly and ensure that head
teachers convene school bursary committee meetings to review the final
allocation and prioritize the most needy cases, as much as possible ensure that
the funding allocated does not fall below 60% of the average and regular
financial requirement of the applicant and make public the list of the students
who receive the bursary funding and ensure that the total amount approved by
the parliament is made available to MOEST for spending.

This research
sought to establish whether this recommendation by MOEST has been adhered to in
Juja constituency in order to ensure access and retention of students in
secondary school.


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Categories: Decision Making


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