IEEE The Netgear dual-band router from 2013

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IEEE 802.11

Definition :

LANs or WLANs communicate that is define by the set of standards(IEEE 802.11 )`.
The technology used in 802.11 is branded to consumers as Wi-Fi.

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to the name , IEEE 802.11 is overseen by the IEEE, specifically the IEEE
LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802). The current version now in use is of 802.11-2007.                    Actually, there are technical
steps for implementing Wi-Fi used by IEEE 802.11. Selling products under this
trademark is checked by an industry trade association named as Wi-Fi Alliance.

U.S decide that IEEE 802.11 standards have its roots from a year 1985. Federal
Commission for Communication that opened up the ISM band which has no license
use. It was formally released in 1997. IEEE 802.11-1997 is a original standard.                              

“802.11 standards” or the
“802.11 family of standards” are commonly used. However to be more precise ,now
this time only one standard existing is (IEEE 802.11-2007) but many changes commonly
known as amendments include 802.11a ,802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n.

This Linksys
WRT54GS Wi-Fi router from 2005 works on the 2.4 GHz “G” standard,
is able to transmit 54 megabits per second.

 The Netgear dual-band router from 2013
uses the AC standard, is able to transmit 1900 megabits per second.



Brief Description:

The 802.11 family consists
of a series of half-duplex over-the-air modulation techniques that use the same basic
protocol. The first wireless networking standard in the family was 802.11-1997 ,
but on market 802.11b was the first time widely accepted, supported by 802.11a,
802.11g, 802.11n, and 802.11ac. Other standards (c–f, h, j) are service changes
that are used to extend the idea of the existing standard.

802.11b and 802.11g both
use the 2.4 GHz ISM band ,now
it is operating in the United States under Part 15 of the U.S. Federal
Communications Commission Rules and Regulations. By using  this choice of frequency band, 802.11b and g equipment
and this suffering occasionally  interference of microwave ovens, cordless telephones and Bluetooth devices. 802.11b and 802.11g able to
control their interference and interference by using direct-sequence
spread spectrum 
and  OFDM signaling methods. 802.11a uses the 5 GHz
U-NII band,
For greater part of the world, offers at least 23 not able to interact with
channels instead of the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band offering only three not
able to interact channels, where other types of adjacent channels interact. The
frequencies  with worst or better performance
are  higher or lower may be realized,
depending on the environment. 802.11n can use either the 2.4 GHz or the
5 GHz band; 802.11ac5  use GHz band only.


Standards 802.11a, 802.11b/g/n:

802.11a is the first Wi-Fi wireless network communication standards which is created in the IEEE 802.11 standards family.


The specification of 802.11a was signed(ratified) in
1999. At that time, the only other Wi-Fi technology was being able to
ready for the market were 802.11b. (The original 802.11 did not gain widespread
deployment due to its very  slow speed.)
802.11a and these other standards were incompatible, meaning that 802.11a
devices cannot interact  with the other
forms and vice versa.

A maximum  bandwidth of 54 Mbps is supported by an 802.11a wireless network ,
significantly  better than the 11 Mbps of
802.11b and on par with what 802.11g would start to offer a few years
later. The 802.11a is an attractive technology due to its specifications, but
its performance is obtained by using relatively higher cost hardware.

and Wireless Signaling:

In the 1980s for public use U.S. government  opened three specific wireless frequency
bands – 900 MHz (0.9 GHz), 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz . 900 MHz proved
too low of frequency to be useful for data networking, although cordless phones used it.

Wireless spread spectrum radio signals in the 5.8 GHz
frequency range are  transmitted by
802.11a. This band was running in the U.S. and for a long time many countries,
meaning that 802.11a networks did not have to contend with signal interference
from other forms of transmitting devices. 802.11b networks use frequencies
in the often unregulated 2.4 GHz range and were much more susceptible to radio
interference from other devices.

802.11b was the first Wi-Fi wireless network communication
technology to achieve mass adoption with consumers. 802.11b is one of
many Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  standards in the 802.11 family. 802.11b products were made
obsolete and phased out by the newer 802.11g and 802.11n Wi-Fi standards.

History :

In the  middle of 
1980s,  radio frequency is used
space around 2.4 GHz was controlled by government agencies in the

This band (U.S. Federal Communications
initiated) is used to change and to remove regulation , previously limited to
so-called ISM equipment. The development of commercial applications was
encouraged by their basic aim.

Some level of technical standardization among
customers on a large scale are required by building commercial wireless systems
. That’s where the IEEE 802.11 stepped in and assigned its  working group to design a solution, which in
the end became known as Wi-Fi. The first 802.11 Wi-Fi standard, published
in 1997, had too many technical limitations to be widely useful, but 802.11 Wi-Fi
was a cause for the development of a second generation standard which known as 802.11b.

802.11b  helped launch the first wave of
wireless home networking. In 1999, manufacturers of broadband routers like Linksys WRT54GS began selling Wi-Fi routers alongside the
wired Ethernet models they had been producing before.

Though there was a difficult to set up and
manage these older products, 802.11b demonstrate the convenience and potential and turned
Wi-Fi into a huge commercial success.

802.11b Performance:

A theoretical maximum data rate of 11 Mbps is supported 802.11b connections support. Although
comparable to traditional Ethernet (10 Mbps), B performs
significantly slower than all newer Wi-Fi and Ethernet technologies.

802.11b and Wireless

Transmitting in the unregulated 2.4 GHz
frequency range, 802.11b transmitters can encounter radio interference from
other wireless household products like cordless telephones, microwave ovens,
garage door openers, and baby monitors.

802.11 and Backward

Even the networks that are newest Wi-Fi
networks still support 802.11b. Due to this reason  each newer generation of the main Wi-Fi
protocol standards has maintained backward compatibility with all old
generations: For example,

802.11g routers
and access points support both G and B clients – called 802.11b/g networks
802.11n routers and access points that support N, G and
B clients – 802.11b/g/nnetworks

This backward compatibility is very good
feature has proven critical to the success of Wi-Fi, as consumers and
businesses can able to add newer equipment to their networks and gradually
phase out old devices with minimal disruption.

802.11g  is an IEEE standard Wi-Fi wireless networking technology. Like other versions
of Wi-Fi, 802.11g supports wireless
local area network communications
among computers, broadband routers, and many other consumer devices.                                                                                                                                                            

G was ratified in June of 2003, and  it is replaced the older 802.11b  standard, later eventually replaced
by 802.11n  and newer standards.

How Fast Is 802.11g:

802.11g Wi-Fi has ability to support a
maximum network bandwidth of 54 Mbps, which is higher than the 11 Mbps rating of B and  less than the 150 Mbps or greater speeds of
N.                                                                                                                                                                       Similarly
many other kinds of networking, G is not able to achieve the maximum rating in
practice; 802.11g connections  hit an
application data transfer rate limit between 24 Mbps and 31 Mbps.                                                                                             

Working:                                                                                                                                                           G incorporated is a  radio communication technique known as  Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplex  that was  introduced to Wi-Fi with 802.11a . OFDM technology enabled G and A to
get  greater network performance than B.

On the other hand, 802.11g chosen the same
2.4 GHz range of communication frequencies  introduced to Wi-Fi with 802.11b.Using this
frequency gave Wi-Fi devices  greater
signal range than what A can offer. 14 possible channels that 802.11g can work
on, though some are illegal in some countries. The frequencies from channel 1-14
range between 2.412 GHz to 2.484 GHz.G was specially designed for cross

What is meanings of  that devices can coordinate wireless networks
even when the wireless access point runs a different Wi-Fi version.The
newest 802.11ac Wi-Fi equipment today can support
connections from G clients.

802.11g for Home Networking
and Travel:

There are many number of brands and models of
computer laptops and other Wi-Fi devices were made with Wi-Fi radios supporting
G. As it combined some of the best elements of A and B, 802.11g became the
predominant Wi-Fi standard at a time when the adoption of home networking exploded
worldwide.Many home networks today still operate using 802.11g routers. At 54 Mbps, these routers can keep up with
most high-speed home internet connections including basic video streaming and
online gaming usages.

They can be found inexpensively through both
retail and secondhand sales outlets. However, G networks can reach performance
limits quickly when multiple devices are connected and simultaneously active,
but this is true for any network that’s consumed by too many devices.In addition to G routers
designed for fixed installation in homes, 802.11g travel routers also gained substantial popularity with
business professionals and families who needed to share a single wired Ethernet connection among their wireless
devices.G (and some N) travel routers can still be found in retail outlets but
have become increasingly uncommon as hotel and other public internet services
shift from Ethernet to wireless hotspots.

802.11n is a standard (IEEE) for Wi-Fi wireless local network communications, contract in 2009.802.11n is
designed to exchange the  802.11a,  802.11b and 802.11g  Wi-Fi technologies.

 Wireless Technologies
in 802.11n:

802.11n uses multiple wireless
antennas in tandem for transmitting and receiving  data. The term MIMO  refers to the ability of
802.11n and like other technologies to coordinate multiple simultaneous radio
signals. MIMO is used to increase  the
range and throughput of a wireless network. An other technique employed by
802.11n that involves increasing the channel bandwidth.  Such networks 802.11a/b/g, and each .11n
device that uses a preset Wi-Fi channel on which is used for transmitting. Such
channel will use a larger frequency range , also increasing data throughput.

802.11n Performance:

802.11n connections that support
maximum theory based network bandwidth upto300 Mbps which
primarily depends on the number of wireless radios incorporated into




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