I.                 
The cause of 2nd Indochina War

 

After the first
Indochina ended, another war occurred in which the second Indochina. 1975. It
was the War between the Northern and the Southern Vietnam. The Northern Vietnam
was under controlled by Ho Chi Minh, who governed of Democratic Republic of
Vietnam (DRV), and it was the Communist politics. The Southern Vietnam was
under controlled by Bao Dai and was back by Western countries. The causes that
Vietnamese leaded into War have two main points. First of all, the results of
the first Indochina War leaded Vietnamese into the second Indochina War. After
French Indochina, Vietnamese split into two, which is the North and the South, and
it was split by 17th Parallel. Vietnam was influenced by two major
different ideologies, which the North by communism and the South by democracy.
The
Northern Vietnam was controlled by Ho Chi Minh and the Southern Vietnam was
ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem. Because the U.S was afraid that communism would
overspread throughout Vietnam which also possibly to the rest of the region
Southeast Asia, according to Domino theory, the U.S., using its containment,
involved in Vietnam internal affairs by supporting the South against the
communist North in 1954. Their relations broke up since then, and begun war
during that time. Second, during the cold war, there were US, USSR and China at
the back and it was a proxy War. In the Northern Vietnam, which backed by USSR
and China to be known as Viet Cong in 1954. And in the Southern Vietnam, who
backed by the US to be known as Viet Minh.

 

II.              
Countries involved in the 2nd Indochina
War

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The
2nd Indochina, which known as the Vietnam War, didn’t mean that only both North
Vietnam and South Vietnam fight against each other in this war. USSR, China and
other communist allies supported North Vietnam while South Vietnam was
supported by the anti-communist countries such as the United State, South
Korea, Thailand and so on. USSR had supported North Korea since the first
Indochina War because North Korea led its country under communism. USSR provided
military weapons, foods, and other materials to help North Vietnam fight
against South Vietnam and wanted to take over the whole Vietnam. For China,
they supported North Vietnamese army, Viet Minh and Viet Cong (Vietnamese
Communist), by supplying huge number of guns to the army. They also provided
financial assistance for communist army. With the spread of communism power of
North Vietnam which led by USSR, U.S feared of the “Domino Theory”. As U.S lead
its country under democracy, they didn’t want the communism take over the South
Vietnam. So, the United State provided military aid to South Vietnamese army
which led by Ngo Dinh Diem and also sent U.S military troops to protect them
from the invasion of communist North. The view of US on the spread of communism
was that Cambodia and Lao were also in Indochina, so if North Vietnam could
take over South Vietnam and led it in communism rule, both Cambodia and Lao
which were the neighboring countries will get influence of it too. To prevent
this issue, the United State tried to support South Vietnamese army with a lot
of materials. However, due to the huge number of communist North army and USSR
army that came to help North Vietnam made U.S withdrew their military troops
from South Vietnam region and let communism power take control the whole
Vietnam.

III.          
How the 2nd
Indochina War ended

 

First, the president of
the United States, Richard Nixon used the policy called Vietnamizaton on July 1st
1969. This policy is talked about the withdrawing some of the United States
troops but they still helped the South Vietnam by providing the weapons and
helped to train their militaries to strengthen their power to fight against
North Vietnam. Second, a lot of people and militaries had been dead during the
Vietnam war, as a result the American people and also the students in the
United State did a protest against the United States governments in order to kept
peace in the country and wanted the United States troops to get out of Vietnam
war. Third, the United State, South Vietnam and North Vietnam made an agreement
on January 27th 1973 that is called The Paris Peace Record in
Vietnam to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam war. Then, after this
agreement, all the United States troops withdrew from South Vietnam and temporarily
stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam. But when all of the
United State troops withdrew from Vietnam during 1973 to 1975, the government
of South Vietnam started to decrease their power. So when the South Vietnam was
getting weaker and weaker, suddenly the North Vietnam started to fight and took
over the South Vietnam included the Saigon as well on April 30th
1975. To sum up, Vietnam reunited as one communist country. In my opinions, I
think that the United States was wrong about the Domino Theory. This Domino
Theory believed that if one country fell under the influence of communism, then
the neighboring countries of Vietnam will adapt this domino policy as well. In
contrast, after the reunited of the South Vietnam and the North Vietnam, they
ended their war and didn’t spread the communism to the neighboring countries
such as Cambodia and so on. So, it meant that they just wanted the independence
and wanted to control their country by themselves.

 

IV.          
The impacts of 2nd
Indochina war

 

The war has killed so many people, destroyed social
infrastructure and caused many problems in society
For North Vietnam: The war has killed more
than 50,000 civilians, killed 1 million and over 50,000. Between 1965 and 1973,
US forces dropped about 8 million tons in Vietnam. The northern infrastructure
was devastated, especially after Operation Linebacker II, which dates from December
18-29, 1972. But the US military bombarded one million tons of bombs on North
Vietnam during the war. The idea behind the bombing was to break the will of
the communist government and to destroy their ability to fight and dispatch
supplies to the south. For this reason, bombing mostly referred to the urban
areas of North Vietnam. The US bombing campaign has seriously damaged more than
70 percent of the industry in the north, reducing the amount of goods it can
produce in half. The bombing also destroyed thousands of buildings, damaged
4,000 villages and sometimes attacked schools, hospitals and hospitals. Another
important goal is the North Vietnam’s network of roads and rail lines. These
routes were attacked by an average 24 bombs per km.
For South Vietnam: killing between 200,000 and
400,000 civilians, from 170,000 to 2,200,000, and more than one million
injured. In the south, US forces used 20 million liters of herbicides from 1962
to 1971, especially in northern Saigon and along the border with Laos and
Cambodia, to reduce the number of dense forest trees that could hinder Viet
Cong (the National Liberation Front) as well as destroy the crops that the
enemy could use to survive. In 1969, about 1,034,300 hectares of forest were
destroyed. “Agent Orange is a major herbicide that has been used to keep
the ecological and social effects of the

 

Vietnamese
people alive.” Today, many children in Vietnam grow with diseases and
disabilities that are impacted by dangerous chemicals in the war.
The destruction of the South Vietnamese
countryside with bombs and ammunition has affected the people living there.
Many have left the rural villages where their families have lived for
generations and became refugees. In fact, four million Vietnamese (a quarter of
the total population in the South) fled to suburbs and towns where they hoped
to escape the bombing and find ways to do business. Conditions in refugee camps
are very poor. There is no way to dispose of waste and human waste that
pollutes water supply and transmits disease. Unable to Find Jobs Many people
are hungry or begged on the streets. Many refugees recaptured and reinvented
what the US Army had left behind. For example, some villagers will collect
shells that fell to the ground after US forces fired on the enemy. They can use
the metal to make a sale of plates on the streets of Saigon.
For the United States: 58,200 people were
killed and 300,000 were injured. In addition, according to Indochina-Newsletter,
Asia Resource Center (Special Issues 93-97), the US government spent about $
350 billion to $ 900 billion on the Vietnam War, including its benefits and
interests, leaving a heavy burden on its economy. The News of atrocities, such
as My Lai’s massacre, has raised US claims of moral superiority and status as
defending the world of freedom and rights. Together with the Watergate scandal,
the war has made American people’s faith and confidence weakened in their
government.
For Cambodia: Cambodia fell into the
insurgents called the Khmer Rouge in April 1975, when Laos and South Vietnam
did. In Pol Pot’s rule nearly one-third of the population was killed.

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