Health Uneven distribution of modern medical facilities,
Health is one of the foremost concerns of mankind. It is a requirement for human development and is essentially concerned with the wellbeing of the common man. Health is not only related to medical care but an integrated development of an entire human society. There are some external determinants which can decide the health status of any person including social environment, hospitals, doctors or technology. It also depends on some internal factors including health culture, education, health practices, etc. Quality of health care, health orientation and social protection of health in a population affects the development status of any nation.Today Indian government coming up with many health programmes. Quality health care has become a key indicator of social inclusion. Providing it to the disadvantaged sections of the society has become a challenging task of government. Rather than just medical care, health is a vital component in every social development programmes. Generally, health system includes patterns of belief about the causes of illness,norms of governing choice and evaluation of treatment, socially legitimated statuses, roles, power relationships, interaction settings and institutions. Today, quality delivery of health care service is largely influenced by socio-economic and other situational factors. Poverty, illiteracy, housing are some of the reasons for health inequalities in India. Uneven distribution of modern medical facilities, lack of effective prevention measure, development behavior of certain communities, absence of strong political will, poor medical infrastructure, malnutrition, transport system, ignorance are some of the difficulties in achieving “Health for All”. HEALTH BEHAVIOR is an act taken by a person to maintain, attain, or regain good health and to prevent illness. Health behavior displays a person’s health beliefs. Human behavior, especially health behavior is complex and not always readily understandable. Health behavior, like other behavior is motivated by stimuli in an individual environment. For example if a person is ill and feeling symptoms either he do nothing till the symptom affects his/her ordinary life ,or he/she take self-treatment if not get cure he/she go to pharmacy still not get cured then go to doctor, some person directly go to pharmacy and then doctor while some person directly go to doctor. Health-seeking behavior has been defined as a “sequence of remedial actions that individuals undertake to correct perceived ill-health.” In particular, health-seeking behavior can be described as the time difference between the onset of an illness and getting in contact with a healthcare professional, type of healthcare provider patients sought help from, how compliant patient is with the recommended treatment, reasons for choice of healthcare professional and reasons for not seeking help from healthcare professionals.Health seeking behavior includes all behaviors associated with establishing and maintaining a healthy physical and mental state.. It also include behaviors that deals with any deviation from the healthy state, such as controlling and reducing impact and progression of an illness. The concept of studying health seeking behaviors has evolved with time. Today, it has became a tool for understanding how people engage with the health care systems in their respective socio-cultural, economic and demographic circumstances. All these behaviors can be classified at various institutional levels: family, community, health care services and the state. In places where health care systems are considered expensive with a wide range of public and private health care services providers, understanding health seeking behaviors of different communities and population groups is important to combat unaffordable costs of health care. Factor like illness types,severity,accessibility and availability also affects health seeking behavior.Depending on illness type, people seek different forms of treatments specific to the disease they are diagnosed with and depending on the severity of the diagnosed disease, people might select different forms of treatments and medication.It was found that individuals perceived their illness to be either mild or not for medical treatment, which prevented them from seeking healthcare treatment. In addition, poverty emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behavior as treatments were often perceived as either a waste of money, lack of money, or poor attitude of health worker.Depending on the area a person lives in, some treatment might be available but not other forms of treatments. Therefore, a patient is limited to what is accessible and available to them when seeking treatment for a disease. Strategies people employ to decide which option to use at which stage of the illness.A person’s approach to health-seeking behavior can be described as a pattern of resort. People usually opt for the simplest form of treatment, which usually is the cheapest, most effective treatment they deem to be. Only when the simplest form of treatment is proved unsuccessful do people seek higher level, more costly and unconventional treatments. Health-seeking is a dynamic process and can involve many aspects of medical units at the same time. Because of this, people are allowed to save information .and make informed choices about the wide range of medical services that are available to them.Since India can be divided into urban, tribal and the rural, social determinant factors also affects differently on different sections of the society as it has marginalized classes like SCs,STs and OBCs. Rural people are most vulnerable to different kinds of diseases. Factors like socio economic conditions, living in remote areas, income, education and occupation will play a vital role in determining the health culture. India health system is a complex mix of both private and public health care providers. The government plays a role of regulatory authority as well as a provider of services. The other peculiar feature of the system is ‘Pluralism’, Indian health system is a home to different forms of biomedicine and traditional health care systems. In India communities use different medical systems to cure different infectious and non-infectious diseases. Depending on the diseases and illness some people normally practice black magic, superstitious belief, miracle cures , religious worship, besides using indigenous healing knowledge and practices representing traditional healing and other medical systems like Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Allopathy, Unani, Sidda, Chinese, Tibetan etc to cure many type of diseases. All these constitute medical pluralism and consist of multilevel perspective. Some people classify different diseases into failure or malfunctioning of different organs. Local healers use different healing techniques or different therapeutics stages representing medical pluralism. Some people preferred practitioner from their own culture than the accessibility and quality of good medical care provided by the different systems”. Some studies in India have shown that there is an interaction between the folk healers and the modern medical practitioners when they practice in the same village. It shows that various medical systems either local or global have their own method of sharing or transmitting vital information about diagnosis and cure among themselves. In rural areas it is found that in case of any prolonged disease/illness and if folk medicine fails to cure then people consult bio-medical health provider for the solution. Still in majority of cases patients reject use of tablets or tonics prescribed by the modern doctors and prefer local healers. In many part of India it is found that hierarchical principle of high and low caste is not only within the social groups it exists with that of medical pluralism like normally low caste people will visit traditional healer who also belongs to the low caste.