Halal issue is starting to get the
Halal issue is starting to get the place and attention in the market, and it is very influencing in marketplace particularly in
most Islamic countries. Among halal issues that arisen are including improper hygienic practice at processing premises and also
the expiration of halal certification. At the same time, halal logistics capabilities are critical in ensuring that the halal integrity of
the supply chain works from farm to fork 20. Since 2003, halal issues has been discussed and obtained highly attention by the
Prime Minister of Malaysia 2.
In today’s global market, the concept of halal can no longer be restricted to simply meaning food that is ‘pork free’. In 6
noted that it covers a multitude of forms such as emulsifiers and other food contents e.g. gelatine, enzymes, lecithin and
glycerine as well as additives such as stabilizers, flavourings, colourings, breadcrumbs etc. These contribute to food that has
been enhanced or added by doubtful substances or animal enzymes in to halal food products and questionable in Islamic law.
Besides, in 6 further added that genetically modified (GM) food is the one that has been given the most attention in recent
development in food technology. In 21 has stated that GM is a biotechnology that transfer particular feature to be isolated that
move from one organism to another. In addition, GM food means the food is derived from a GM organism that contains protein
through modification. Consumer attitudes toward GM foods are related with risk and benefit perceptions. In 22, 23 support
this notion by stating that science, knowledge, trust, education and values are profound to the consumer perceptions of risk and
benefits. GM food can contribute to the halal issues since customers are more conscious of the ingredients that were used in
order to modify or add into the food. Therefore, GM labelling is the main priority since it affected on consumer’s purchasing
Other issues include the slaughtering of poultry and meat produces in a manner inconsistent with the rites of Islam and food
ingredients intermixed with non-halal materials. According to 6, it is difficult to verify the halalness of food or other groceries
especially when they come pre-packaged or processed. For instance, it is difficult to trace a chicken that has not been
slaughtered appropriately when it has already cut into pieces. Hence, the chicken is forbidden for the Muslims for consumption.
Presently, it is apparent that most companies are practicing putting halal mark on their products and premises. Even though
some as mentioned by 6, they do not understand the actual concept of halal as if they are doing it just for the sake of gaining
confidence from the Muslim consumers. This is corresponding with the study by 16 which discovered the abusing of halal
logo by the producer. This issue instilled the doubtness and uncertainty among Muslim consumers when they are intending to
purchase food products. The problems arise due to the local food manufacturers that did not comply with the Malaysian Halal
Standards as well as they cannot prove any documents indicating that their product can be labelled as halal. For instance, the
issue of products that use fake halal logo on noodle products made in Malaysia 25. This related issue could trigger chaotic
consequences among consumers, especially Malaysian Muslims. In Islam, searching for halal is compulsory. As the chain
reaction, this issue can halt the process of making Malaysia as one of the important halal hub across the globe.
Initially, the idea of using halal logo is to help Muslim consumers to be sure of their products selection. The only halal logo
that is permitted by JAKIM is the one that has the word Malaysia. In 26, the introduction of this halal logo and the
transformation made by JAKIM is to better coordinate, to improve the efficiency of halal certification process and to avoid
disarray amongst international community. Due to this, Halal Industry Development Corporation (HDC) in their research
discovered that there is growing credence towards halal products among both Muslims and non-Muslims.
Basically, halal almost related to the way of slaughtering of animals for Muslim’s consumption. However, halal issue also
attracted non-Muslim consumers’ awareness and needs since it related to the highest quality of products and services that they
consumed or used. Halal principles are not isolated to the religious only but appeal as healthy and hygienic cuisine style as
people become more health-conscious. According to the 27, there are strong demands for halal product in non-Muslim
countries. They chose to eat halal food due to the perception that it is a healthy choice. Due to lack of knowledge and
insufficient information on the benefits of halal process, they are not practicing it on their daily lives 28.
According to 6, Muslims regard foods and products with halal logo as permissible to be used or consumed in accordant
with Islamic law. Thus, those that abuse the use of halal logo and certificate have really struck the sensitivity of Muslims. This
has created dubiousness amongst them, and consequently affected their food and product selection.
The higher demand for halal food products influenced the increased supply for halal certificate and logo 26. Halal
certification is becoming another issue of halal 29, where the manufacturers or food producers still use the same halal
certificate even though the certificate is already expired. This might be due to some of the manufacturers were not aware that
their halal certification has expired or they refuse to renew it. Halal certificate is valid for only 2 years 2, and it is difficult for
them to always renew the halal certificate since it costs money and time. Furthermore, it is costly to repurchase the halal
certificate and requires strict process to renew the certificate.
It is supported by 26 that operational inefficiency and halal governance are the 2 reasons that delay the process of
obtaining the halal certification. The operational inefficiency is involved on both sides of food manufacturers and internal
problems in JAKIM. The problem from the food manufacturers side include inadequate understanding of halal procedures,
incomplete documents, defrayment of certification fee in abeyance and incognizant of information to be submitted. While the
problems from the internal are lack of expertise as new staffs have little knowledge and slowing the halal certification process,
unsystematic filing system, premise inspection which required more than a day and delay in receiving lab test result. Then, the
lack of enforcement and no comprehensive halal act are the issues that rise under halal governance.