Green RoofsRooftop gardens are green roofs ?Green roofs are buildings whos roofs are covered in purposefully planted vegetation. Though unlike house plants, green roofs are planted directly onto the surface of the roof, along with root barriers and drainage systems to protect the building. They are popular mostly in the united states, but are slowly gaining popularity in europe.  What issue do the roofs need to solve ?The issue that green roofs are attempting to solve are the dangerous and harming greenhouse gases that are created when burning fossil fuels for energy/electricity. The greenhouse effect is natural, but the extreme amounts of fossil fuel burned combined with the rainforests being cut down caused the “enhanced greenhouse effect”. The enhanced greenhouse effect is forced to happen due to increased clusterings of the greenhouse gases. This leads to negative effects on the ozone layer and contributes to global warming. The environment is mostly affected by the greenhouse gases as its natural process is enhanced. The  Green roofs help to solve this issue as they reduce energy costs, allowing less fossil fuel to be burned for energy. The energy costs are lost as the green roofs act as insulators. During warmer weather, it keeps hot air out, and during the colder times in keeps it inside. This helps lover the energy as lesser heating is necessary to keep a building in the comfortable temperature. How to the roofs work? The gardens can easily be installed on most roof. The two types of gardens that are able to be installed are the extensive and the intensive   roofs. Extensive roofs have less soil, and are   easily attacked by algae, although they      easier to take care of. They work best for moss and sedum as the soil isn’t strong enough to support other plants. An intensive roof has a thicker and stronger layer of soil that is able to hold more weight and protect against more fungi, although it will bear more weight. When deciding what roof to install one must consider the total weight that will lay on the roof of the garden itself, as well as the weight of the drainage system, and the root barrier. Another important factor to calculate in is the extra weight that will be added during rain or snow. To make sure that the drainage system works, water exists the drainage layer through a simple gutter. And then into the ground. Rooftop gardens protect the roof against ultraviolet radiation, harsh weather, as well as protection the roof membrane to enable it to last much longer than conventional roofs. and green roofsThe most important part to green roofs thriving is sunlight and photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in necessary for the gardens to stay alive and flourish. If the gardens are not able to photosynthesise, they will die and not be able to insulate the homes. This is also important as when the garden dies/rots, it will then release the CO2 they had stored up back into the atmosphere again. When the plants use photosynthesis they are also making oxygen that will be released, helping the the ozone layer as well as making the air cleaner. Science behind green roofs The science that involves green roofs, is how they are able to reduce harmful greenhouse gases as well as reducing global warming. The greenhouse gasses will be scientifically affected due to the fact that the installments of green roofs allow consumers to spend less money on heating and energy costs. This is beneficial for the greenhouse gasses that are released as less needed energy allowing factories to burn less fossil fuels for energy which is impacting our environment the most. An addition to the harmful greenhouse gases, the burning of fossil fuel also contributes to global warming, and worsens the state of the ozone layer. Installing a green roof When thinking about installing a green roof there are a few factors that are necessary to be evaluated. As mentioned before it is important to think about the weight that will be added to the building, as well as the extra weight when the garden is exposed to harsh weather conditions. Another important fact is the cost of one of the roofs. An extensive roof is not as expensive with $10 per square foot, whereas intensive roofs are more pricey with around $25 for the same size. It is important to consider this when buying roofs. It is important to think about water access to the roof before installing a garden, as it is important for the plants to stay healthy. The access to water will help them photosynthesise as they are always facing the sun, eventually (when not reviving water from natural sources i.e. rain) have the possibility of drying out. Limitations, benefits and successes Limitations Benefits Not everybody is willing to contribute by installing the gardens Not everybody has enough money to install the gardens (up to $10 per square meter)Not enough people are contributing to make permanent changes The installments are very heavy There is little to no insurance Longer life of the roof membrane Less money spent on energy/ electricity costsLess negative greenhouse gasses Reduces urban heat Reduced material waste Aesthetics There were quite a few benefits to rooftop gardens such as reduced material waste. This is very beneficial to the environment as it reduces the amount of fossil fuel waste, as well as allowing some of the fossil fuel factories to close. Another benefit to green roofs is a longer life of the roof membrane. The roof membrane is the roofing system that washes the water of the roof. This is helpful as the system would not  need to be replaced often which results in lesser  membranes that need to be made. On the other hand, there are a few limitations for the gardens to work. One of whom is that not enough people are contributing to the project to make important changes last. Since the earth is already having problems with global warming and the slow breaking of the ozone layer, it is important to make drastic changes. But people either cannot contribute because they have money issues,  their roofs are slanted too steep (ideal at a 20-30 degree angle) or they are just not interested in the system. Another flaw to the project would be the fact that the gardens are very heavy. This is a quite important problem as it has something to do with safety. If the building is not able to bare the weight of the gardens, there are chances that the roof could break in or that walls could crack. This is especially important to think about when living in the united states as most housing is not built of stone but of plywood and drywall. An important success of green roofs is the fact that heating/energy costs are able to decrease considerably. They  can go down to up to 75% lesser than without the gardens. This is an important success as it means lesser fossil fuels need to be burned, protecting the environment. This also contributes to healthier and cleaner air because of the plants photosynthesisingConclusionIn conclusion, the rooftop gardens are able to contribute to the lowering of greenhouse gases, through lower energy costs and more efficient power use. The gardens are important for the cities as they help air quality, reduce the amount of harmful greenhouse gases and slow down the hole in the ozone layer from growing. I think it is an important benefit for the environment as well as an important factor for personal advantages. Finally I think it is important that if people are able to install green roofs they should definitely, to further the health of the environment.

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