government departments. In particular, projects aimed at increasing the awareness of migrants and Czech citizens, counseling for migrants (social and legal), development of their language skills, etc. were supported. The non-governmental and non-profit organizations participated in these goals. (Drbohlav, 2010, pp. 76-77)In 2003, the Inter-ministerial Commission of the Minister of the Interior prepared an Analysis of the Status of Aliens. In this paper, cultural integration is divided into two models – cultural assimilation and pluralistic cultural integration. A prerequisite of the model of pluralistic cultural integration is that within one country there may be more different cultures if they respect fundamental rights and values and if they are internally open. Another prerequisite is the fact that the original language of immigrants is considered part of their culture and should therefore be promoted. On the other hand, this document states that for effective integration, it is necessary to promote the language of majority society. (Barša, Baršová, 2005, pp. 233-236)2.3.3 Third Phase 2004 – PresentThe third phase started on January 1, 2004, when the issue of the Integration Agenda was transferred to the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. At the end of 2004, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs issued a document highlighting the inefficiency of current integration approaches. According to the authors, the inefficiency was due to the fact that the existing integration approaches were too general. In spite of thist it was stressed that it is necessary to approximate the legal position of foreigners to the legal status of citizens, there was no concrete of way to reach this approximation. In addition, no integration obligation was imposed on immigrants and, on the other hand, people who tried to integrate into society were not favoured. The solution was to develop detailed legal regulations on the integration of immigrants for the whole Czech Republic. The essence of this integration document was also to emphasize the reinforcement of individual and individualized integration, which was understood as a conscious and deliberate process, the process consisted in concluding a treaty between immigrants and natives and its subsequent fulfillment. (Baršová, Barša, 2005, pp. 236-237)2.0 Migration theoriesMigration theories mean the different aspects of explaining international migration. These theories are inexhaustible, and each one focuses on another area of migration. The main reason why there is not only one migration theory is the fact that migration is a process that is very broad and is being studied by professionals from various disciplines (geography, sociology, economics, history and demography). Now, let’s look at some of the selected migration theories.2.1.1  “Push-pull” theoryPush-pull theory consists of several factors that cause population movement. This can be grouped into two groups – “push” factors and “pull” factors. “Push” factors are considered to be the forces migrating from the country of origin to another country, which is why they are considered in the Czech literature as pressure factors. Conversely, “pull” factors are forces that attract migrants to the target country and are therefore also referred to as pull factors.For example, lack of jobs, poor quality of health care, low levels of housing, polluted environment, war, natural disasters, famine, drought, lack of freedom, fear of persecution, etc., are considered as pressure factors. The fact that there are pressure factors does not mean that migration must take place. This occurs only when there are factors that attract the migrant to the target country. Among these factors (pull factors) are, for example, lucrative employment opportunities, higher quality of health care, more satisfactory living conditions, greater freedom in politics and religion, a better education system, family ties etc. From the above examples of individual factors, it is possible to divide them into three basic categories – economic, cultural and environmental factors. The current development of migration then suggests that in most cases people migrate mainly for economic reasons. (Palat, 2014, pp. 16-18)  2.1.2 Neoclassical theory of migration The neoclassical theory of migration is considered to be one of the basic theories dealing with the explanation of migration that reached its peak in the 1960s. In connection with this theory, two approaches have been defined – macroeconomic and microeconomic. The macroeconomic approach assumes that migration is a result of an uneven division of labour and capital across the country. On the contrary, the microeconomic approach states that migration is a result of unequal distribution of labour and capital at the individual level. According to the macroeconomic approach, the difference in wages and opportunities between countries is the cause of migration. On the basis of this approach, workers from low-wage areas and large numbers of workers move to areas where there are high wages and a lack of labour. Their motive for such behaviour is maximizing wages. By migrating to work-poor areas and high wages, the wage gap is gradually being balanced. According to this theory, when the level of wages is balanced, migration is stopped.The microeconomic approach to neoclassical migration theory emphasizes the rational behaviour of individuals who decide to migrate. When deciding on migration, they use a rational calculation of the possible costs and benefits of migration. Therefore, they take into account the costs and benefits directly related to migration. The reason for this migration is the inequality that exists on the labour markets of the individual countries.Neoclassical migration theory is in some respects similar to the “push-pull” theory of migration. The main difference, however, is that this theory takes into account only one area of economic causes of migration. Another problem of neoclassical migration theory is the fact that there is no way to take into account the segmentation of the labour market. This is especially important because individual segments may evolve differently and mobility between them may be limited. (Palat, 2014, pp. 19-20)Also, according to Porizková (2008, p. 16), according to neoclassical theory, migration is explained by a rational thinking unit, for which the most important factor when deciding on a possible migration to maximize the profit flowing from it.

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