For stated that an evidence based-practice leads

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For this
assignment, the topic chosen is person-centered care. Firstly, a brief
definition and importance of evidence-based practice (EBP) will be discussed. Secondly,
person centered-care will be discussed. The scope of this discussion will also
cover the search method used to source for information for the topic. Finally,
the key points on the information gathered and how it is useful to nursing
practice will be explained. 

to Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, (2015, p.3) evidence-based practice is
described as a practice where decision and judgment is made using an up-to-date
data and information that best support clinical practice. This means continuous
reflection, analyzing and evaluating methods used in delivery care. For
example, the roles of nurses include promoting well-being and to aid recovery
in patients (Kusano, 2014). For this to be achieved, a method which has being researched, tested
and affirmed to be the best must be in place.  

and Bassendowski (2017) stated that an evidence based-practice leads to a
positive outcome for patients and enhances clinical practice. It also ensures
that nurses and other health professionals are accountable for the care

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practice that promotes positive care outcome, is person-centered care
practice. Person-centered care is built around the patient’s needs and
values. It is a practice which makes sure patients, including their families,
are involved in decision making about the care provided. It is a practice that
treats patients with dignity, respect and as an individual.
(, 2017).

person-centered care practice has been put in the forefront of healthcare. As
cited in Baillie and Black (2015, p.137-138), the Nursing and midwifery council
(NMC) code implores nurses to practice a person-centered care. This includes:
talking to patient; listening to them; putting their beliefs and social
circumstances into consideration. And with equal partnership, together making
the best decisions that will promote positive care experience.   

sources were used to generate information for this
topic. A chapter in a book, a website and a journal.

are peer-reviewed works and studies, written and published by experts. These
are people that have extensive knowledge and are professional in their fields.
Journals can provide an in-depth information on topics being researched (, 2017). 

On the
GCU library website, subject guide was highlighted. On the subject help,
nursing was then highlighted. This is to narrow the search field to nursing. The
result produces key database or nursing and all database for nursing. The key database was highlighted. This was to
focus more on quality and relevant

The key
nursing database produces result such as AMED, Medline and Cinahl. Cinahl was
chosen to search for journal. Cinahl database provides high quality journal and
publication. It provides reliable and authentic articles, eBook’s and website
useful for nurses and health professionals. (Health ebsco, 2017).

On Cinahl
search engine, the key word used are: person-centered care; patient centered
care and person-centered care and nursing. 

broad keyword could generate more information when searching for resource. For
example, person care could also mean patient care in nursing. This search
generated 8,589 results.

was used to narrow the result down. Limiters are useful when searching for
information as it helps to minimise search result. It allows adequate retrieval
of useful information and reduce the research process (support-EBSCO

timespan was limited to the last five years. This reduced the search result to
3,290. By limiting the language to English only, the geographical area of publication
and academic journal reduced the results to 582. 

scholar was used to search for reliable websites. Google scholar provides easy
access to reliable websites, journals, articles and e-books that are openly
available. It suggests that google scholar is used as a starting point for
researchers to search for resources (Heather Campbell, 2017). 

were also used to reduce the amount of irrelevant search results. Also, to
focus on key information, the year of publication was also limited to the last
five years. 

library was used to source for relevant books on topic. As stated in Burns and
Grove (2009, p.94), libraries provide quick access to hard copies of
literatures. This also includes articles and journals as special archive
documents. This can be useful when carrying out a research. Using keywords,
relevant books in the library were identified and accessed. 

One of
the information gathered during research on the topic person-centered care was
a chapter from a book. 

Book: Mccormack, B., & Mccance, T.  (2017), Person-centered in
nursing and health care, theory and practice. John Whiley & Sons Ltd. 

authors of this book are both professionals in the health care sector.
McCormack is professor and head division of nursing at the school of health
science at Queen Margarete University, Edinburgh, Scotland. McCance is also a
professor for nursing and director for the institute of nursing and health
research Ulster University, Coleraine, Northern Ireland. 

Chapter 3
of their book explores the framework of person-centered care. This chapter
explains that person-centered care has continued to develop through the years.
Though, coming across changes that continue to improve the practice, the core
foundation has remained stable through the years. 

The core
foundation or framework includes: prerequisite; care environment;
person-centered process and expected outcome. 

explore the qualities that are expected of a nurse that will enable a proper delivery
of care. This includes being competent by possessing learned and personal
skills that are essential in delivery of best care. According Watterson 6Cs
(2013), nurses should be able to provide quality care. This can be achieved by
having the knowledge and proper understanding of the patients – their values
and beliefs. It is paramount for nurses to have adequate understanding of their
roles and responsibilities, and how best to work together with patients.
Without this, nurses will not be well-equipped to provide care, thus
person-centered care cannot be achieved.   

The care
environment discusses conditions and setting where care is being provided. To
make sure adequate care is provided. It is important the environment supports
nurses. This allows work to be done effectively and efficiently. A care setting
that is hostile to patients, or nurses, limits interaction between colleagues,
patients and other care professionals involved. The nursing and midwifery code
(NMC 2015) states that, nurses should communicate effectively, share ideals and
work together with colleagues. This is not achievable without a positive care
environment. Also, having a mix of skills and sharing of power can also improve
a positive care environment. (p.48-49). 

process refers to the way care is being carried. Being competent or having a
positive care environment is not enough to achieve person-centered care. The
way the care is provided matters most. Promoting dignity, sharing of ideas,
listening to patients’ views and putting them at the center of their care is
important. People must be treated with empathy, respect and compassion. It is
also important to maintain trust, promote patient’s safety, work together with
colleagues as a team. (NMC code, 2015).   

outcome talks about the effect of practicing in this way. As suggested by
McCormack and McCance, this leads to a good positive care experience. It
improves job satisfaction between colleagues and patient got more involved in
their own care.  


Esmaeili. M, et, al.2013.
Barriers to patient-centered care: A thematic analysis study. International
journal of nursing knowledge. online. 25(1) p.2-8. viewed 25 October 2017.
Available from: 

study was part of the PhD dissertation of the first author Maryam Esmaeili. She
is a BSM and MSN holder. This study was carried out to identify the barriers to
person-centered care. To achieve this, a qualitative research was carried out
using thematic analysis approach. Nurses with experience of at least 2 years
were selected for the research. The nurses selected worked in an intensive care
unit. This was used as criterial for selecting participant as the patients
needed more care time. Interviews were conducted using ”probing” to ascertain
response from the participants. The
result gathered identified barriers to person-centered care. 

lack of team work / communication. Black (2014) defines communication as the
transfer of information, views and ideas from one person to another. She also
states that communication can be transferred through body language and gestures. 

For care
to be effective, teamwork and good communication is vital. Royal college of
nursing (RCNI2015) propose that, communication is and essential key in
achieving theme goals. Listening to one another, sharing ideals and problem
solving together. These will have a positive impact on the care delivered,
staff relationship and the overall care outcome. Furthermore, the article
identified that patients are sometimes not put first. This implies that nurses
go by their own instinct or their preference rather than seek for the patient’s

lack of motivation was also identified as a barrier to person-centered care.
When nurses or care professionals have no passion, and is not committed to
care, makes working effectively difficult.  

the lack of holistic view. A holistic care not only focus on what is obvious to
the eye.  Moore (2013),argues that health
professional often focus on diagnosing and treating the clinical conditions.
Holistic care gives a better and wider picture of the patient condition and
other factors that have effects on their condition and how this affects their
health. For example, a patient is being treated for severe headache
occasionally. The constant headache might be due to stress, anxiety or lack of
sleep or other emotional stress. Without the full understanding of the patient
circumstance and how to minimize what causes stress, a better outcome would not
be achieved.   

Website: Draper, J. & Tetley, J. (2013), Open University. The importance of
person centered cared approaches to nursing care. online Open Learn viewed
05 November 2017 available from: 

authors of the information are professional in the nursing and social care
field. The journal discusses the importance of person-centered care in
nursing and how it can be achieved.  The authors focused on the patient
and nurse relationship, knowing the life story of the patient, and how
education is vital for nurses in practicing person-centered care. 

nurse relationship is a significant aspect in person-centered care. This
relationship will influence the way patient relates to nurse. For example,
nurses that do not show adequate caring attitude, or disregard the patient, already
created barrier between them and the patient. This might cause the patient not
being open or comfortable with the nurse and others providing care. Though
there are boundaries that should be set, having a good relationship can bring a
sense of relief, calmness and reassurance to the patient. It can also encourage
patient to share their concerns, views and preferences – knowing that their
input is as important as that of the care providers (, 2017). 

knowing the patient’s history or life story can help achieve person-centered
care. This can give some understanding about the patient’s beliefs and values.
This can be incorporated in the patient care plan. 

person centered care can be achieved through nurse education. It is necessary
that nurses can apply knowledge gain through education, skills and experience in
providing care. Amanda (2015) proposes that lack of funding for educational
program and training in support can be a barrier to person centered care. 

author agrees that for nurse to be able to provide quality care, the step
towards healthcare being all graduate is the positive way forward. 

learning and improving on ones’ practice does not end after graduating. The
Royal college of nursing (RCNI), suggest having the desire to continue to learn
and improve is ideal. Taking every role assigned to as a means of learning and

resources show different aspects of person-centered care. It has highlighted
the foundation all person-centered care plan should be drawn from (McCormack et
al, 2017). This is helpful for nurse and care provider in identifying what
quality care should be. 

It is
also useful to know difficulty or challenges that can be encounter. This create
the chance to strategized on how best to tackle these challenges when the need

importance of teamwork and communication were identified in the sources. This
is also an important knowledge and useful to nursing practice. This helps
nurses to achieve the common goal which is to provide quality person-centered


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