Flavonoids: diseases such as diseases of cardio-vascular, age-related

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Flavonoids: Flavonoids are formed by a large group
of polyphenolic compounds with benzo-?-pyrone derivatives with phenolic and
pyrane rings and are abundant in the plants. Six classes of flavonoids have
been classified differing in chemcial structure namely flavones, flavonols,
flavonons, flavanols, anthocyanidins and isoflavons. They give protection
against the harmful ultraviolet radiations, against many pathogens and attract
the insects because of the presence of a pigment anthocyanin found in flowers
and fruits. (Harborne and Willliams, 2000). They have considerable antioxidant
and chelating properties, are anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and many are
enzyme-inhibitors. (Heim et al.,
2002). Quercetin, Kaempferol and Quercitrin are found in 70% of plants. They
have protective effects in the degenerative diseases such as diseases of
cardio-vascular, age-related diseases and cancer. (Kumar et al., 2013, Cook and Samman, 1996). Flavonoids are found in many
fruits, vegetables, wine, foods, beverages etc. and are termed as dietery
flavonoids. Flavonoids are the powerful radical scavengers as they have the
ability of stabilizing the ROS as they react with the radical’s reactive
component. They are powerful anti-oxidants (Srivastva and Brezwada, 2015), anti-mutagenic
(Snijman et al., 2012), anti-carcinogenic
(Lejune et al.,2015) and they can
modulate the cellular functions of the enzymes.(Kim et al., 2014). Flavonoids are effective modulators in the
functioning of neurons and the diets rich in flavonoids show positive effects
in maintaining the human cognitive functions (Mcready et al., 2009, Prasain et al.,
2010 and Vazuour et al., 2008) and
enhance the regeneration and function.(Youdim and Joseph, 2001).

Alkaloids: Alkaloids are an important class of
secondary metabolites showing diversification and contain the nitrogen atoms in
the heterocyclic ring and basically they are derivatives of amino acids. The
term was coined by Carl F. W. Meissner and the word is taken from an Arabic
name al-qali that relates to the plant and from which soda was first isolated.
The alkaloids have low molecular weight structures and they constitute 20% of
the secondary metabolite in plants. They possess wide range of physiological
effects like they are good anti-bacterial, antibiotic, anti-cancerous
properties. They can lower the blood glucose level and two alkaloids namely
tetrandine and berberine possess antioxidant activities as well as
anti-diabetic properties. (Yang et al.,
2001).  Alkaloids can enhance memory and
act as neuro-protecters in dealing with Alzheimer’s disease. (O’ Brien et al., 2006). The nitrogen based compounds
have a role in plant defense mechanism against herbivores and many pathogens.
They act as stimulants, narcotics, pharmaceuticals and poisons as they are very
potent and are mostly found in seeds, leaves and roots of the plants. They are
CNS stimulants and used as anesthetics. (Madziga et al., 2010). Some addictive stimulants of plant origin are
nicotine, morphine, ephedrine, cocaine, atropine, caffeine and many more. Solanaceae
family is rich in alkaloids namely tropane alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, indole
and pyrrolizidine alkaloids which occur naturally in different organs of the
plants and have a defensive role to protect against many predators or insects
and any disease. (Jerzykiewicz, 2007). The glycoalkaloids found in many plants
such as in the species of Solanum
have fungicidal and insecticidal properties. (Chowanski et al.,2016).

definite biochemical and
physiological actions in the human body. (Nyamai et al., 2016). Phytochemicals are beneficiary as they are less
toxic, less costly, ease of availability and possess a large number of medicinal
properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, antitumor
properties. Along with their pharmaceutical properties, they can be used as
fragrances, pigments, food, cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. There are many
types of phytochemcials such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenols,
terpenes, glycosides etc. (Harbone 1973, Okwu 2004). Solanaceae family produces
vast range of phytochemicals and among the Solanaceous plants, the
phytochemical studies of various parts of Solanum
nigrum have been done worldwide. (Zemali and Ridha, 2013). Qualitative
Analysis of phytochemicals of Datura have
also been studied. (Jamdhade et al; 2010).

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