Explore how Building Information Modeling(BIM) change the industries of quantity surveyingIntroduction  Under the rapid development of general infrastructure and high demand on housing needs in Hong Kong, the construction industry was started to boost since the 1980s and the trend still exists nowadays. Meanwhile, computer technologies become more and more common during this 30 years. Despite it has been changed how we live, it also changed the ways that how we work especially in quantity surveying industries. As a student of quantity surveying, I have discovered that the computer technologies are actually leading the trend of the whole industries to a brand new level. However, in some of the situation, even how technologies are advanced, some of the procedure have to be done by the hand. In this project, I will discuss how computer technologies have changed the whole industry and the consideration inside.History and background of quantity surveying  Quantity surveying actually has been existed since ancient Egyptian but it was not until 17-century restoration of London after the Great Fire that quantity surveyors developed as an occupation and the start of the firm Henry Cooper and Sons in Reading, England.By according to QSBC (2009), Quantity surveyors are the profession developed during the 19th century from the earlier “Measurer,” a specialist tradesman who prepared standardized schedules for a building project in which all of the construction materials, labour activities and the like were quantified, and against which competing builders could submit priced tenders. Because the tenders were each based on the same schedule of information, they would be easily compared to find the most suitable candidate. The first usage of the term ‘Quantity surveyor’ was in 1859. In the early days, the quantity surveyor act for the masters tradesmen, to measure the work after completion and prepare the final account to the client.Evolve and recent situation  The rapid change of the construction industry,quantity surveyor’s’ duties are not just limited to the traditional roles like single rate approximate estimates,cost planning,procurement advice,measurement and quantification,document preparation especially bills of quantities,cost control during construction,interim valuations and payments,financial statements, final account preparation and agreement,settlement of contractual claims although it is still practiced on small and medium sized project. In fact, since 1980s, the roles of quantity surveyor has been diversified including procurement, benchmarking, value and risk management, auditing and whole life costing.  In 1980s, since the computer technology has become more common and mature as well as the appear of computer aided drawing(CAD), almost all of the work can be done by computer including from planning and design to the completion of the work. One of the most well known software which use for quantity surveyor is Building Information Modeling ,which may change the whole industry no matter in operation or the method of measurement.BIM(Building Information Modeling)  BIM has a very immense impact on the construction industry since it became one of the most important tool recently.The history of the BIM can be traced as early as 1960s, a Sketchpad program by Ivan Sutherland ,which is a solid modeling programs began to appear building on developments in the computational representation of geometry. Today, the BIM is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a building which involves a shared knowledge of all the information related to the construction project between all parties that which involves the use of software so that the designers can model design and build up the project virtually at any stage of the project development. therefore, the project can be shown to the client in detail even the electrical and plumbing system as well as the furniture.Unlike conventional construction projects, BIM can imply the elaboration of the complex plan of the project that focuses on the entire lifecycle of the building and that means the project involves all stages from the design of the building to its demolition.  Besides the hardware of the project,BIM can also consider a variety of factor that may affect the outcome of the project such as light analysis, geographic information ,quantities of the  building components. While these issues are extremely important and usually not fully taken into consideration during the development of construction projects. While the traditional method like paper drawing are actually cannot provide these kind of information immediately. Instead, BIM models provides the wide information on these issues that help customers to explain their needs and have a better design, while designers can take into consideration on the environmental impact and other issues related to the construction of the building. Advantage of BIM  The BIM gives out a lot of advantage in different perspective especially in quality and efficiency.To begin with, BIM can let the construction company ident the problem much more quicker and lower the cost of correcting errors. Since the BIM can allow designers to view the building and its contents from all angles.Both sections, elevations and three dimensional views can be created instantly. Which let the viewers can take a view the area that they want immediately in order to find out any error from the design and It also save the time of making a specified design portion when comparing with the conventional models.  Moreover, the BIM can boost the accuracy and efficiency of taking off the quantities, that involve the key of the entire project— the cost. Which also a direct indicator whether the project is succeed or not. Because of the Metadata can be attached to the objects which allows a more accurate counting and price modeling so that it can improve the accuracy of bids and tendering price.    It can also let the designers can enjoy receiving fewer requests for information and change orders. The schedule inside the BIM can show up the availability of the material and the construction progress. Which let the company can optimize the working schedules and increase the efficiency while lower the risk of making error.Despite the lower the total budget, lower the risk of making error means reduction in insurance costs, bonding fees and a positive impact on firm reputation.  BIM can also enhance the efficiency of facility management. Since it can link data from manufactures, construction data and communications into one fully integrated and robust facility dashboard. The facility managers can use BIM to gather usage data in order to prepare maintenance schedules using predictive data, manage daily operations and plan for future purchases and construction additions.  Furthermore, BIM can create an optimal plan between client and designers in a comfort and peaceful way.Both parties can negotiate the model of the project until they are fully accepted so that the model can be implemented. This is because the customers can take a look what they will receive on the completion of the project and in order to share the idea at both sides.Therefore, the designers can fully consider the customers’ needs,while customers give them feedback. Eventually, designers and customers come to agreement on the final project plan, which contractors start implementing.  BIM can mitigate the risk during a construction of the project. Risk are always a big concern during any project and it is also a main reason of increase in variation and over budget. The using of BIM can slightly reduce a great portion of probability that having any variation and therefore reduce to risk of over budget and delay. The BIM can eliminate the manual extraction of drawing through data exchange platform or other method of integrating process. During a construction project, there will are numbers of contractor which in charge of different section of the whole project. Which mean that there will be numbers of different charts and plans. This will affect the accuracy when combining each of the plan and which will make numbers of mistakes often.BIM in this situation can minimize the error during communication and design process which can minimize the risk of reworking and also the project time. Furthermore, the BIM can reduce the risk by reducing uncertainty of the project. Since the BIM itself can visualize the whole building in details and collaborate with each section from different person. Therefore, it can let the construction team to find out how it works before completion.    How BIM change the quantity surveying industries  The BIM itself can provide variety of data from the architectural design to the cost of the project and the further coordination. As the implementation of BIM has become wider, it has changed the industry in different way.  In design and planning aspect, since the architect or engineer will handover to someone who actually build the project after the design stage, they will attempted to put all the detail regarding the project on the two-dimensional drawings, any additional renderings, and other construction documents. Inevitably, there will be definitely have a risk of error .Normally, if there is an error,the solution is the construction personnel discover the errors or issues and they will have to reconcile them . This may waste a huge amount of time since all the design has been defined and even the work has been in progress. On the other hand, the client may want to change the design after the commencement of work due to the owner’s need to physically see the project before deciding on some of the details.This may seriously affect the total cost of the project or the progress negatively while this problem usually found after the commencement of the work . And because of the existence of BIM, These types of issues has been decrease rapidly since everything can be done through the modeling stage which can minimize the unnecessary wastage of material and time and also find out an agreement at both sides.  In estimating aspect, traditionally, estimating quantities for a construction project needs a quantity surveyor or construction manager to prepare very detailed Bill of Quantities. While some of the pricing techniques has to involve personal experience to sum up a optimal estimation. However, not everyone person in construction industry are experienced even that person are professional and it usually a very time-consuming job may cause at least several weeks even months. As a result, not only it is cost ineffective, but also create a lot of wastage from human resources. The BIM can estimating quantities has become much more simpler, easier and more accurate job which let the company the allocate the cost and human resources and decrease the total budget in a project. With a lower budget of completion, more project can be done at the same time, which enhance the productivity of the industry in overall.     In scheduling aspect, the BIM has a great contribution in efficient scheduling. Planning is important for anything especially in construction industry. Without a proper planning can let a project become a huge mess and it has to spend a lot of resources for cleaning up. Therefore, after the designs and estimation has been finalized,  a schedule has to be created immediately to determine the proper time and order. In the old days, it relies on a group with a few members who familiar the the project. Despite the duration of each section, they also have to allocate the human resources and examine the potential risk. Although there is other software transfer the whole process from paper to computerized system, there is no link between the schedule and the building design. Through BIM, the planning team can analyze every detail of the building design so that they can design the most efficient schedule. While keeping update if there is any changes of plan. Consideration of using BIM  Even though the BIM has numerous of avantage among the industries of quantity surveying and even bring out a huge impact on the method of how we work. However, nothing is absolutely perfect and here is some consideration that I found before the implementation of the BIM:Cost  The price of the BIM software is actually not cheap at all. Beside the software itself, which make take each workstation more than $5000 USD(10) .These level of pricing are surely not every enterprise can be afford especially for the small and medium sized enterprise.Plus, BIM itself are require a high level of specification on hardware products. This is also a problem for small and medium sized enterprises.Besides princely software and hardware,the company are also needs to prepare a certain amount of capital in order to provide training to the BIM user since the BIM itself is sort of advance software to the user. All these analysis above can shows that the company who are in use or planned to use BIM has to be prepared wisely no matter on capital and human resources. On the other hand, as mentioned before, running BIM requires capital and man power and the only sector that who have such a power are usually big enterprise. In my opinion, I think this may lead to an unfair situation of monopoly or oligopoly which makes the medium and small enterprise become more difficult to survive in the industries.   Security issues  As all of the work will be saved inside a computer or server. Therefore there are always having a risk that somebody want to take it illegally. On the other hand, cybercrime has become one of the largest threat in recent decades while the target can be anyone who are using computer which including the users of BIM of course. According to the analysis(11), the main of the BIM can be divided as external threat agents, internal threat agents and also the system and business failures.External threat agents are malicious outsiders who areunconnected with the building or structure and the professions involved in its design, delivery or operation. Such as the hacker from outside;Internal threat agents are insiders who connected with building or structure and the professionals involved in its design, delivery or operation.They may abuse their privileged or authorised access to the BIM data, e.g. to steal or leak sensitive commercial data, to corrupt the BIM data or to disrupt operations; and system and business failures mainly are failure on hardware or software, Bankruptcies and business failures affecting the availability or access to BIM data or the systems used to store, process or manage BIM data.The threat from above could be leave a serious consequence such as lost of data or whole project and it also required person who have special skills like cyber security expert as a countermeasure on these issues and this also may costly. Application example in Hong Kong Among those projects that using BIM in Hong Kong, one of the most well-known project are the several projects that committed by Hong Kong Housing Authority(HA).HA has been used BIM since 2006 and it has been adopted to more than 19 projects in the section of structural engineering field for demolition, excavation and volumetric precasting works.So Uk demolition project  This project has to demolite 5 Y-shaped domestic blocks with cantilevered corridors and balconies which can not be done by normal demolition procedure. Originally, the engineer can just imagine a 3D image through the 2D floor plan only and this will block the engineering them getting some critical first hand data like the efficiency of heavy equipment.However, through BIM to provide a very detail model, the engineering them can fully inspect each of the step in every aspects like safety, legal and so on which increase the overall accuracy of the first hand data and save time and the cost of the project.Kwai Chung Area 9H Project  This project the authority use BIM to estimate the quantity of excavation for the foundation works. The BIM can shows the area of the pipe pile wall, the area that need to be excavated and also the area and the height of the stone level. Therefore, the engineer can calculate the actual amount of the quantity that the rock and soil to be excavated. On the other hand, the BIM is also assist the engineer team to identify and solve the difficulties during the excavation and lateral support works. This project is located in a very congested site with a large amount of soil and rock has to be excavated. Also, the terrain of the site has a very huge difference(from +>10m to ->10m),while the building area are surrounded by pipe pile wall. The engineer team input all the data from each of the construction stage to the BIM. After that the BIM can provide a walkthrough the the team in detail, to determine whether the location can set up the heavy equipment or not.Furthermore, the team create a real model through 3D printer which can provide the information to the contractor whether they have to adjust the working schedule and set up a path for vehicle access.This can not only saving the time and the cost of the project, but also can minimize the dispute of each stakeholders which may lead to become a legal issues.Future development of BIM  As the computer technologies has been widely used in our industries and it is still expanding today, in the future that not far away, the industries can achieved fully computerized in my opinion. However, besides fully computerized, the machine that from the future can not only assist us to tackle any difficulties during the construction project, but also it can learn from the experience that ‘they’ get and make decision from ‘themselves’. This is what we call as Artificial Intelligence(AI).AI is the intelligence that can be exhibited by computers or robots instead of any animals. This means the robots and computers can learn and improve themselves without putting in any command by us. While BIM can also implement AI in order to assist us, human beings, during the construction projects. To begin with,  we can use AI to analysis all of the building components, to examine whether there is a design faults;and to improve or even rework on the design that we made.Also, the AI can design a building by itself when it knows the component of the construction site such as whether it is too close the other residents or the location is located at the unstable soil level. Moreover,as mentioned before, the AI can actually learn itself.Therefore, through the project that save in the database, the AI can set up a schedule for us to achieve the most optimal planning from all the stage of the project and time schedule planning. On the other hand, probably not really related to BIM, the AI can discover any risk during the project and it will figure how to avoid that before it happens in the reality and it can also learn how to prepare a proper bill of quantities by using different method of measurement since the AI can recognized the location of the project such as Hong Kong, which may apply the measurement method from the Hong Kong Standard Method of Measurement(SMM).                  Conclusion  It is inevitably that the industries of quantity surveying in heading in to a new generations.When computer technologies is stepping up into our daily work. Meanwhile, some of the enterprise,are still using the method that our ancestor use to build the home that we live today.What will happen to the industries in the future? Using the technologies which we may not yet be founded, or still using the paper, pencil and ruler? In my opinion, in less than 10 years, the whole industries will face a very huge change and we will sure will be adapt to it and we will definity to try our very best, to construct a city that not just belong to Hong Kong citizen, but for our home, our planet , for everyone, for our child.Reference (1):History of the Roles and Responsibilities of quantity surveyor—-Fadil Icham Jauffur https://www.scribd.com/doc/54074144/History-of-the-Roles-and-Responsibilities-of-Quantity-Surveyor(2):The Changing Face of Quantity Surveying Practices in Construction Industry—-YESHWANTH BABU REDDY(3):THE EVOLVING ROLE OF THE PQS ‘PROFESSIONAL QUANTITY SURVEYOR’—SENTHIL ARUMUGAM(4):https://archinect.com/archlab/history-of-bimhttp://www.prendos.co.nz/the-evolving-role-of-the-pqs-professional-quantity-surveyor(5):http://www.architectureresearchlab.com/arl/2011/08/21/bim-history/(6):http://www.essaywriting.expert/essay-on-bim-theory-and-practice/(7): Lee, C. (2008). BIM: changing the construction industry. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2008—North America, Denver, CO. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/building-information-modeling-changing-construction-industry-6983(8):https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877705814030665/1-s2.0-S1877705814030665-main.pdf?_tid=5ce4aa42-e07b-11e7-9c89-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1513220790_82dc6849b83baf0ad0053d81c12b9cdf(9):https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877705814019432/1-s2.0-S1877705814019432-main.pdf?_tid=82566a42-e079-11e7-bde8-00000aacb362&acdnat=1513219994_3662ff111d96aa6269f42a662dcdb977(10):https://blog.capterra.com/integrate-bim-small-practices/https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237569739_Building_Information_Modeling_BIM_Benefits_Risks_and_Challenges(11):Building Information Modelling (BIM): Addressing the Cyber Security Issues –by   Hugh Boyes CEng FIET CISSP, Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom(12):http://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/en/business-partnerships/resources/building-information-modelling/913)(13:)http://ibima.co.in/2017/09/13/bim-artificial-intelligence/          

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