(2) society. (4) Institutions Assign Roles and

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(2) Institutions Control Human Behaviour: Institutions organize and regulate the system of social behaviour. Through the institutions the unexpected, spontaneous, and irregular behaviour of people is replaced by expected, patterned, systematic, regular and predictable behaviour. Thus, the interpersonal relationships of the individuals are regulated by institutions. They make clear for the members what is allowed and what is not; what is desirable and what is undesirable. This is particu­larly true of the governmental institutions. (3) Institutions, Simplify Actions for the Individual: Since the institutions prescribe a particular way of behaviour for the fulfillment of our basic needs, they save much of our energy and also time.

They avoid confusion and uncertainties and contribute to a system and order in society. (4) Institutions Assign Roles and Statuses to the Individual: Institutionalisation of the social behaviour consists of the establishment of definite norms. These norms assign status positions and role-functions in connection with such behaviour. Institutions such as family, marriage, education, property, division of labour, caste, religion, etc. provide some social standing for the individuals concerned.

(5) Institutions Contribute to Unity and Uniformity: Institutions which regulate the relations between individuals have largely been responsible for unity and uniformity that are found in a soci­ety. (6) Manifest Functions of Institutions: Javery institution has two types of manifest functions- (i) the pursuit of its objectives or interests, and (ii) the preservation of its own internal cohesion so that it may survive. For example, the state must serve its citizens and protect its boundaries. At the same time, the state must escape the danger of internal revolution and external conquests. (7) The Negative Functions of Institutions: Institutions may cause harmful effects also. They do not undergo changes easily and quickly even if the circumstances demand change. When they become too conservative they retard progress.

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They even hamper the growth of personalities of the people. Religion and caste can be mentioned here as examples to show how they-often discourage people to do achievements or adventures.

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