Energy saving methods are considered and applied in the
design. Nevertheless, in order to attain a substantial reduction in energy
consumption in the structure, both renewable energy systematic technologies and
energy-efficiency methods are applied. It is vital to implement these standards
within the newly constructed K block building since the European Union have
agreed to apply all the aspects in order to achieve the goal of a nearly zero
energy building by 2020 (Chel and Kaushik, 2017).
It is vital to apply different methods of renewable energy
systems into the redevelopment of the K block. There are several
aspects that need to be considered in order to discover ways to achieve the
nearly zero energy passive building design before the building is constructed.
One of the main aspects that is considered is the use of equipment, with the greatest
energy efficiency, and the combination of renewable energy technologies
designed for several uses. The environmental impact and the choice of the
materials and renewable energy technologies have been discussed briefly.
The solar passive building technique is one aspect that is
reflected in the design prior the construction of the building. The utilisation
of low embodied energy building materials for the construction of the building
is also discussed. The third aspect weighs in on the discussion of integrated
renewable systems for solar photovoltaic electrification and hot water heating.
The discussion of building sustainability is becoming
further developed and a significant factor in the building sector across the
UK. The central focus of sustainable proposal is to decrease depletion of
resources such as raw materials, energy and water. Other factors such as
avoiding environmental degradation, which is generated by facilities and
substructure during its life cycle, is examined. The creation of built
environment which is useful, operative as well as safe.
Low-energy building techniques
The purpose of solar daylight, passive heating and cooling
systems and transport for grey water will be incorporated with the design of
the K block redevelopment. These aspects will be based on the climate
conditions on the Trefforest site.
The practice of the low energy building materials is a
significant factor that is discussed further in order to achieve a low embodied
energy for the newly constructed K block building. As well as low energy
building materials, energy efficient appliances such as an air-conditioner, LED
lighting, cooking appliances and refrigeration will be calculated into the
The proposed design of the K block will be incorporating
renewable energy systems such as rainwater harvesting system, solar
photovoltaic panels at the south-facing roof top of the K block building to
generate electricity and solar water heating panels to supply hot water. The
economic analysis and environmental emission will be discussed alongside
integrating renewable energy systems.
proposed K block building will be incorporating a direct gain system using the
south facing glazing on the second floor so that the living space is used as a
solar collector, heat absorber and supply system. The south facing glazing will
admit solar energy into the K block where it carries directly and indirectly
thermal mass materials in the building such as the masonry floor and wall. This
direct gain system will consume 60-70% of the sun’s energy that will reach the
glazing. The thermal mass walls and floors will absorb solar radiation
throughout the day and discharges the heat energy throughout the evening into
the living area.The solar passive heating system via indirect gain, the thermal
mass is will be situated between the living space and the sun. This method will
allow the sunlight that reaches the thermal mass to incorporate and release it
to the living space through transmission. This system will consume 30-40% of
the sun’s energy that reaches the glazing and windows attached to the thermal
Ventilation and heating
A number of ventilation and heating strategies were used
within the building. These strategies were considered based on the energy
efficiency they allow the K block to gain.
The proposed K block building will be both mechanically and
naturally ventilated. The natural ventilation will be created by serving vents
in the higher level of K block. Trees will be imbedded besides the K block to
deliver shade for cooler air so that it can be transmitted via vents at the
ground level of the building. This will allow the warm air to rise through
conduction and release to the external open-air through the vents in the higher
level of K block. Casement windows will be installed around the K block to
achieve the best possible airflow around the building.
To achieve the most effective ventilation, windows will not
be placed exactly opposite each other, but rather place them in different
openings. This method is known as cross ventilation (Autodesk
Sustainability Workshop., n.d.). Cross ventilation will allow the
air to mix and distribute cooling and fresh air throughout the entire room
K block building will place larger openings on the sheltered sides of the
building that the windward is positioned. The K block will insert inlets where
the pressure zones are much higher and the outlets will be positioned at a
lower pressure zone. Ventilation will be much greater within the building if
this method is introduced during construction (Autodesk Sustainability Workshop., n.d.).
cooler air sinks lower and hot air rises, it is more beneficial to place inlets
low in the room and openings higher up in the room. Rooms in the K block will
be cooled down more efficiently (Autodesk Sustainability Workshop., n.d.).
In order to achieve the best outcome of ventilation around
the building, there are multiple strategies and ways to enhance the quality of
ventilation. The following methods will help achieve that goal.
Installing casement windows instead of double
hung windows as they operate well and provide better rain protection.
Rooms that have one window, two expanded
windows will be installed instead of one.
The south-facing side of the building will have
practical windows installed.
The Lo-Carbon T-Series Panel ventilation are mounted in the
internal partitions and through the external walls. The System will operate
automatically on both extract and intake. They work best within the design due
to the angles they can be mounted in. The Lo-Carbon T-Series also provides
natural ventilation within the building using the fan motor switch which sets
the shutter open when switched off. This system works best for the building as
the system still works and provides ventilation without the security risk of an
open window. Whereas the passive ventilation works as a natural ventilation
system using different strategies, including cross ventilation, buoyancy and
venture effect, which is warm air rising and wind passing over the terminals
Weather compensation controls is a strategy that will be used to heat
the K block. The weather compensation
controls will allow the boiling within the plant room to perform at its best.
The operative flow temperatures inside the K block will change via the weather
compensation controls that will assist the boiler to do so. This method of heating will work effectively
as the weather compensation controls can work on a regularly without the use of
any on-off controls. The flow temperature will adjust based on the temperature
inside the building and the weather temperature
The weather compensation controls will have two sensors, one placed
outside and the second inserted in the boiler, that allow to adjust the
temperature by transferring the temperatures from one sensor to the other. This strategy will be very effective and
beneficial as it will help to save energy via the sensors being able to
establish if further heating inside the building is needed or not.
To make valuable use of the large roof space, the aspect of
having solar photovoltaic panels and solar heating panels attached to the roof
is considered. The goal is to reduce the environmental impacts, the newly
constructed K block building will, by considering renewable energy systems that
will help to achieve that goal.
Solar photovoltaic panels
Installing PV panels
onto the roof will deliver energy that does not cause any harm to the
environment or contain any dangerous greenhouse gas emissions. Although PV
panels are quite costly, they do provide energy at no cost in return. This
method will allow the K block to save money and energy. The reason why they are
an efficient source of energy is due to the solar energy that is available
almost wherever there is sunlight. By placing the PV panels on the south
exposure of the K block, this will allow for as much sunlight to be absorbed
and transferred into electricity.
Other sources of renewable energy systems were considered,
such as wind turbines. However, solar photovoltaic panels are currently the
best option for the K block as they have no mechanically moving parts, only
when the mechanical bases need to track the sun. The movement limitation shows
that they have far less breakage which is a vital factor as it could result in
financing the damages if that occurred.
PV panels require less maintenance and the operational and
maintenance costs are lower in comparison to other renewable energy systems,
such as wind turbines. An additional aspect that is important is the noise
level of the systems that would be installed. The solar photovoltaic panels
produce no noise and are completely silent. As well as the University campus
itself, there are currently residential areas, including the student
accommodation, which had to be considered due to any potential noise level. The
PV panels will be the perfect solution (Green, 2012).
Solar Heating Panels
As there is such a large roof space for the proposed K block
renovated construction, there will be enough space to install both solar
photovoltaic panels to generate electricity and solar heating panels. The solar
heating panels will not only provide an energy efficient way to heat the K
block, but provide hot water. Like solar
photovoltaic panels, solar heating panels is an efficient and inexpensive
source of energy. The solar heating
panels will help turn approximately 80% into heat energy even when there isn’t
any visible or direct sunlight (Morley, 2015).
on the location, the UK has lots of rain and water collected and filtered from
rainwater harvesting is a valuable resource that can be re-used in place of
mains water. A sustainable development, such as rainwater harvesting, are
continuously incorporated in the standard specification of a new building. The
concept of rainwater harvesting is very simple, hence why it is becoming the
preferred and essential method for new buildings. The way the rainwater will be
collected is through the sloped roof, which will then be stored on site. Once
the rainwater has been stored, it will then be filtered and re-used throughout
the entire K block. The filtered rainwater will only be for uses such as urinal
flushing and fire sprinklers. Rainwater harvesting will help to cut down the
mains water consumption, and potentially reduce the environmental impact.
rainwater will be collected through a storage tank, placed below-ground besides
the K block, and a non-pressurised system. The storage tank will have an
incorporated filter for the rainwater to pass through and eliminate any large
fragments such as leaves. Any excess rainwater will flow out of an overflow
using a one-way valve.
are sensors and a under water pump present within the tank, which gather water
from the cleanest part of the tank via floating suction filter. The filtered
rainwater is then supplied to the break tank (Stormsaver, 2016).
The redevelopment of the K block building is surrounded by
nature so it is important to give the building the appropriate appearance. The
building itself must compliment the hillside that will surround the building.
The choice of building materials and design concepts have been chosen based on
the surroundings, embodied energy, maintenance and sustainability. The proposed
materials that are chosen for the K block building will possess factors that
make them the most fitting.
the weathering, the proposed materials for the project will require minimal
maintenance. As well as maintenance, the materials must be able to withstand
deterioration so that the appearance does not change severely over time. The
choice of the appropriate and sustainable material will show great results in
cost and the environment. To choose the right material, the embodied energy the
material possesses must be examined first.
cladding offered the best solution in regards to choosing the appropriate appearance
that will also compliment the hillside. The use of a sustainable material such
as timber cladding will allow the K block to appear captivating within the
timber must be first treated before it is used to avoid issues relating to
deterioration. The choice of timber will be of a high-density panel. The panel
will be fabricated from natural timber that will then be treated with resins.
Once the panels have been treated, they will be set under high temperature and
high pressure to allow the panels to resist high UV radiation and weathering
causes. The panels will be used for the
exterior wall cladding. To use the right
sized panels, they will be cut so that they can build a detailed vertical
allying effect. Two different types of timber panels will be used to create a
contrast between the materials.
An additional aim of the facade management is
to diminish the mass of the buildings. In order to achieve that goal, the
integration of a second proposed material would suggest a solution. The
material that would work well and that possesses low embodied energy is brick.
The choice of brick will favour the timber panels and present a textural
contrast between the materials. The proposition of recycled brick will assist the
K block in achieving a low embodied energy as the recycled brick are already
made so no raw materials will be needed.
Parts of the south-facing exterior walls will use an
exterior glass wall instead of timber cladding. The large glazed panels will
allow as much natural lighting to enter some parts of the K block. This method
will reduce the use of using artificial lighting and save energy in the
process. The exhibition space, 2 offices
and cafeteria will gain the most natural lighting from this system. In order to
decrease the amount of short wave radiation that will travel through the glass,
a solar coating will be applied to the inner face of the outer glass panel of
an insulated glass unit (IQ Glass, n.d.).