EARTH’S this paper we will be comparing Earth’s

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EARTH’S FORMATION AND EVOLUTION COMPARED TO JUPITERElijah E. SkjoldagerVirginia Aerospace Science and Technology ScholarsABSTRACTIn this paper we will be comparing Earth’s formation and evolution to that of Jupiter. The essential question we are trying to answer here is, why is Earth considered a “Goldilocks planet”? We are going to study the solar nebula theory to answer, How did the planets of Earth and Jupiter develop differently? We will do that by looking at the planet’s internal structure and the densities of the planets. We will also be looking at the atmospheric composition, the presence of water, is there any water on Jupiter?, the distance from the sun, and the presence of carbon. We will also explain the concept of the “Goldilocks planet” and how it will help with Kepler missions. KEYWORDS: amu – unit of Atmospheric pressure, satellite, atmosphere, Goldilocks planetEARTH’S FORMATION AND EVOLUTION COMPARED TO JUPITER 13.7 billion years ago scientist suspect a brilliant spark ignited and suddenly the universe was created. This was the big bang. Scientist believe that the universe first started as a super condensed space. If you had one teaspoon of this matter and energy you would be holding 100 million trillion trillion trillion of “stuff” in your teaspoon(“T Minus zero,” n.d). One billion years later the first stars winked into existence and galaxies were starting to form. Presently there are many, many galaxies including the Milky Way which houses our solar system which in turn holds our home planet Earth and the Jovian planet Jupiter. What is the main difference between these two planets is that Earth is considered a “Goldilocks planet”. A “Goldilocks planet” is a planet that is just far enough away from the sun so that it doesn’t become a frozen or a superheated wasteland. Scientist can tell if a satellite is a “Goldilocks planet” by looking at the size of the star that the satellite in question is orbiting and the distance of said satellite is from the star. For example, our sun’s stellar temperature is between 5000K and 6000K with the Earth being a stellar distance of 1AU. Jupiter on the other hand has an average stellar distance of 5.2AU which is not a “Goldilocks planet”. This will help with Kepler missions because it makes it easier to single out planets that may be able to harbor life. The solar nebula theory states that the sun was formed from other pieces of exploded stars and under the gravity of the sun a molecular cloud of dust condensed around it and created a spinning disk called a solar nebula. Ice clumps moved around the sun colliding and sticking together through a process call accretion. In the inner orbit of the solar nebula it was too hot for lightweight volatiles like water and ammonia. Solar wind would whisk these volatiles away to the outer orbit where they would condense. In the inner region the planets forming were relatively small, but in the outer region the planets would get so big they started to affect each other’s orbit resulting in collisions, thus those planets became bigger. The result of these planets being made up of mostly gases swept to them from the solar winds these gas giants such as Jupiter with a density of 1.326 g/cm^3 is less dense than Earth with a density of 5.514 g/cm^3. A factor of life that is important is water and carbon. We all know that there are both of these on earth, with us needing water to survive and carbon is a building block of life but, is there either of these on Jupiter? The answer is yes there is water on Jupiter in the form of water vapor at its cloud tops and yes there is carbon in the clouds of Jupiter. Another factor of life is the composition of the atmosphere. Earth’s atmosphere contains: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other trace elements like carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, xenon, ozone, iodine, carbon monoxide, and ammonia.Allgre, C. J., & Schneider, S. H. (2005, July 01). Evolution of Earth. Retrieved December 27, 2017, from, F. (2009, November 09). How Far is Jupiter from the Sun? Retrieved December 27, 2017, from, J. (2008, June 18). Is There Water on Jupiter? Retrieved December 27, 2017, from (n.d.). Retrieved December 27, 2017, from, April 10). Retrieved December 27, 2017, from to Know the Goldilocks Planet. (2012, March 29). Retrieved December 27, 2017, from 1 Reference Material. (n.d.). Retrieved December 27, 2017, from 1 Reference Material 1. History of the Universe. (n.d.). Retrieved December 27, 2017, from, J. (2017, April 25). Jupiter’s Core vs. Earth’s Core. Retrieved December 27, 2017, from, N. T. (2012, November 7). What Is Jupiter’s Atmosphere Made Of? Retrieved December 27, 2017, from , T. (Ed.). (2017, October 18). How Far is Earth from the Sun? Retrieved December 27, 2017, from Is Jupiter’s Atmosphere Made Of? (n.d.). Retrieved December 27, 2017, from

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