Early collar ghetto jobsDuring WWII women had
Early SM:SUFFRAGE1916-1942: Margaret Sanger and American Birth Control LeadMargaret Sanger spread information on what types of birth control there where and tried to develop an effective pill. In 1916, she opened a clinic and in 1921 she formed the American Birth Control Lead (ABCL). After a few years her and ABCL members spread information about birth control which was illegal until 1936. In 1942 the ABCL was turned into Planned Parenthood. Although Planned Parenthood offered contraception to women, there was a racially motivated controversy. People of color, specifically of Latin or African American descent, protested birth control out of the belief that it was a way to decrease the number of children of color. (textbook 559) 1960 FDA approves birth controlFDA approved birth control pill. It paved the way for women liberation and the sexual revolution while allowing men and women to stay career driven, without the fear of having a child. 1943: WWII women and pink collar ghetto jobsDuring WWII women had to take mens jobs while they were away at war. Women were forced into pink collar ghetto jobs. After WWII the men came back but women wanted to continue working. Women introduced the Equal Pay act so women would be paid the same as men but it was passed 20 years after the act was created. 1960s: Sexual Revolutionwomen were told to save themselves for marriage to be pure but with legal birth control and they felt liberated and women started to have meaningless sex. This became a problem because sometimes it would become meanful to one partner or the woman would get pregnant but the father would not stay with her. Women also felt that in order to prove their liberation they would have sex with any man. If a woman got pregnant she would be a single mother and for those would had a child when they were young, they were unable to get the necessary education for a well paying job. The lack of good paying jobs for females resulted in the “feminization of poverty.” 1963: Equal Pay ActThe Equal Pay Act was passed by John F. Kennedy to pay workers the same wage regardless of sex and race.1964: Civil Rights ActEqual Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created with the intent to explore the accusations of discrimination in the workplace against women. Women were treated as second class citizens and the EEOC was treated as a joke, they did not take accusations seriously. (textbook pg. 812)1966: National Organization for WomenLiberal Wing of the women’s movement was created with the National Organization for Women (NOW). It was created because the federal government did not enforce the Civil Rights Act. NOW was a group of educated women that wanted to make the EEOC enforce the Act. (textbook pg. 812)1970: Jo Freeman Boycott Jo Freeman decided to not take the United Airlines flight that would have made her trip easier because of their males only on executive flights. She wrote the airline a letter and started a boycott movement that created new policies and reforms. 1971: Boston Women’s CollectiveBoston Women’s Collective wrote Our Bodies, Ourselves as a new understanding of women’s own sexual and reproductive health. In 1972 they became The Boston Women’s Health Book Collective expanded Our Bodies, Ourselves to empower women to own their body.. 1972: ERAEqual Rights Amendment (ERA) was approved by Senate. The ERA is an amendment that would prevent discrimination in the workplace against women. “Stop ERA” was a movement created by Phyllis Schlafly. The movement was comprised of conservative females whom did not believe in the passing of the ERA because they were scared to leave their roles behind and live a new life. 1972: Ms. Gloria SteinemMs. (magazine) is a feminist liberal magazine created by a group of feminists led by Gloria Steinem. Steinem worked for New York Magazine and spoke and wrote about feminism. Ms. magazine was entirely run by women. Covers political issues or news stories relating to feminism. Gloria Steinem testified for the ERA, co-founded the Women’s Action Alliance, and the National Women’s political Caucus. 1972: Title IXTitle IX was created for equal opportunity in federally funded athletic programs for males and females. Allowed women and girls to participate in more school activities such as sports and other extracurriculars. 1973: Roe v. WadeRoe v. Wade. Norma McCorvey, also known as the fictional Jane Roe, was the plaintiff in the case Roe v. Wade which legalized abortion (vote was 7-2) after she took to the Supreme Court. The main reason the court agreed was because women were illegally getting abortions which cost them their lives in unsanitary facilities.1973: Battle of the SexesBobby Riggs lost to Billie Jean King in an exhibition tennis match in the three sets. This was an important win because Bobby Riggs challenged King to a $100,000 winner takes all match. Riggs said that she had no chance in winning because she was a woman and belonged in the home. King created a Women’s tennis association and and said she would boycott the U.S. Open if females were not paid as much as men. 1976: Hyde Amendment Ban on medical funding for abortions. 1994 three exceptions were made: rape, incest, or when a womens health is at risk. 1977: National Coalition v. Domestic Violence Women and children would not talk about domestic violence because it was such a private topic but this coalition was created to report domestic violence and fight against it. 1978: Pregnancy Discrimination ActDidn’t allow jobs to fire woman because of pregnancy. Woman started to take more jobs. In 1981 Sandra Day O’Connor became the first woman in the United States Supreme Court. An inspiration to all women. 1984 Sally Ride became the first woman astronaut. 1982: Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) An amendment created to prevent discrimination based on sex in the workplace, was first created in 1923, but Congress did not approve. It was approved by U.S. Senate in 1972 and was given seven years to ratify, but was granted 10 years by extension, until 1982.Did not ratify due to needing 38 states to ratify and only having 35 after 10 years. Phyllis Schlafly, a well-known anti-feminist and anti-abortion, argued against the ERA with arguments including it would jeopardize support from husbands for wives and their children, would make abortion a “constitutional right,” and would allow women to be drafted in the military. Late SM:1991:Anita Hill charged Clarence Thomas, with sexual harassment while they were working for the the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission. Anita came out about this before Clarence was appointed as a Supreme Court Justice. The were a lot of speculations because she was a black female and was labeled either a hero or a racist. Her allegations were dismissed by the US House and Senate but she raised awareness about sexual assault and encouraged others to speak out against it. And inspired women to run for office. Record high numbers of women in office. Named the “year of the woman,” inspired by Sandra Day O’Connor. But the Equal Rights Amendment was not ratified. 1994:Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) a federal legislation that offered more protection to female victims of secxual assault, domestic abuse, and other abuses.2005-2017 Hillary Clinton and Nancy PelosiHillary Clinton- from 1993-2001 she was the First Lady of the United States, 2001-2009 she was a New York Senator, and from 2009-2013 she was the United States Secretary of State. In 2016 she ran for President .She was the first woman nominee of a large political party.Nancy Pelosi-female politician from Baltimore. In 2007 she was the first female speaker to serve on the U.S. House of Representatives, she continued to do so until 2011.2017-2018: The Women’s March was a movement that took place in early 2017 after the name of the next President was released. It was used as a demonstration to convey the amount of people, female or not, disagree with Donald Trump’s ideas and morals. Celebrities participated in the march (there were many individual marches taking place in different states) to use their own platform to share their own morals, especially in relations to women, in response to his being elected to office. The #metoo movement was an online movement launched to give women a community to unite in response to the sexual assault, rape, and harassment reported in the entertainment industry of Hollywood. Some famous feminists have reportedly not supported the #metoo movement because it is counter-productive, belittles the bigger things and the victims because it makes everything seem equal in trauma and impact.