Discuss participants and minimize risks for participants.

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the major ethical principles that guide researchers in their works.

An individual should be
treated as autonomous which means that the individual capable of making their
own decision about important personal matters. The individual should only be
involved in research if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fully
informed about the nature, purpose and consequences of the research. Therefore
the individuals’ right need to be respected and they can make their own
decision whether to participate in the research or they will refuse to be the

The second requirements in
the principle of autonomy is people with diminished autonomy should be
protected. This is to ensure that the persons concerned are not involved in research
which could be harmful for them with regard to a research project. This is
because some people in society may not have the capacity to make fully informed

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Beneficence is the act that
is done for the benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare of the
persons concerned. This principal states that the research should do no harm
and maximize benefits for participants and minimize risks for participants. Participant
must be safe and feel protected by the researcher whenever they sign he consent
and agree to participate. Full explanations and information must be detailed to
participants.  To use easy words and
simple language for details so that they will fully understand and to avoid
miss understand of the concepts.

The purpose of the research
is to discover new information that would be helpful for the society in future.
It should never cause harm or injured to anyone or find out information at the
expense of other people. There is dilemma arises from the researcher in this
case because to avoid the risks, the researcher needs to know what is harmful. Never
take for granted that the participant will understand the researcher language
used. The evidence obtained from the study will show whether it is beneficence
or not. In order to identify what can benefit the patients, it may be necessary
to exposed them to risks although the researchers are obligated to do their
best to minimize those possible risks and to maximize the benefits for participants.
Never exposed the participants’ details to public or other researcher in any
way. Participants’ personal matters must be well kept in the separate location
and data are recorded and subjects’ name are only can be access by the
researcher or members of the researcher.



Offer to answer All
Questions Is made. Potential subjects must always be given the opportunity to
ask any questions they may have about the research.  It is almost impossible for the researcher to
include every aspect of the study in a verbal or written explanation.  Participants frequently have questions about
the study and an opportunity should be presented for these questions during the
verbal explanations of the research.  The
researcher is obligated to be available (by phone/email/letter) if the
questions arise at a time of if participants have questions when reading the
written explanation of research.

Anonymity or Confidentiality
is assured.  Anonymity occurs when no
one, including the researcher, can link to the participants’ data they
provide.  If participants can be linked
to data, the researcher has the obligation to address confidentiality.
Confidentiality involve protections of the participants’ identity by the
researchers.  In many studies, it is not
possible to maintain anonymity.  The
researcher will usually come face to face with the participants in an
experimental research.  To assure
anonymity or confidentiality, participants and the site where the conclusion of
the study was conduction should be described in general terms in the
description of the sample and the setting.

Right to refuse to
participate or to withdraw from research without penalty is assured.  All participant in nursing research must be
voluntary. Even if a random sampling procedure is used to obtain participants,
these people must be given the opportunity to decide if they which to
participate.  No form of coercion should
be involved.  There must be no penalty
for nonparticipation.  Potential research
participants must be informed that they may withdraw from a study at any time
and for any reason.  This is particularly
important in experimental studies in which a treatment is involved.  Participants may withdraw for any reason

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