Diavion McLeod12/19/17Miss HudginsNight PaperThere are various circumstances that give rise to genocide. Sometimes there is a reason and sometimes there is not. Genocides have 8 stages. The stages are classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation, extermination, and denial (all in order). Classification (1) would be Hitler’s consideration of the Jews as an “inhuman race.” He thought that Jews did not deserve human rights. Most Jews had to pretend that they were not Jews so that they could live normally. Hitler’s goal was to remove what he thought were the inferior types from Germany, making more Lebensraum (more room) for Aryans. The Jews were a huge part of his hatred. Symbolization (2) is when Hitler made the Jews wear a yellow star of David on their clothing so that the SS officers could tell the difference between them and non-Jewish people. Jewish houses had to be marked with a Star of David. Jewish people had to have Jewish names so they could be easily identified. They separated them from non-Jewish citizens. The Jews were deprived of rights of citizenship. Jews were prohibited marriage or sexual relations with Aryans and German-Jewish intermarriage. Dehumanization (3) occurred when Jews were treated like they were animals so who they deemed undeserving of any human rights. Organization (4) was that during the Holocaust, everything was organized. The SS officers could do whatever they wanted. A lot of them let that power go to their heads. Polarization (5) was when all Jews were sent to live in the ghettos and concentration camps. Jews were not treated as equals. Preparation (6) is when Jews were sent to live in certain areas in the ghettos and camps. Hitler did this so that they could isolate them from everyone else and so that none of them would be able to escape. Extermination (7) was that throughout WWII, Hitler killed millions of people. Throughout “Night,” Wiesel told us about the killing of innocent people merely for being Jewish. Denial (8) is that blowing up the camp, they tried to get rid of any traces of the horrors that happened there. Some thought that killing people was wrong, they all thought that they were helping the world.According to History.com, “the word “Holocaust,”comes from the Greek words “holos” (whole) and “kaustos” (burned). It was historically used to describe a sacrificial offering burned at the altar. Jews were the “inhuman” race to the German racial purity and community. Hitler’s holocaust came to fruition under the cover of world war, with mass killing centers constructed in the concentration camps of occupied Poland.”In 1941, Jews were moved to Polish ghettos as well as all around Europe with the heaviest amount of people being moved during the summer and fall of 1942. Warsaw’s ghetto held over 300,00 people who were classified as the ones of no value due to them being young, old, sick and weak. They began gassing on March 17, 1942  at the camp of Belzec.There is a book on the Holocaust called “Night” by Elie Wiesel. He is a survivor of the Holocaust. He was only twelve when everything took a turn for the worst. It all started when Moshe the Beadle, his instructor, returns from a near-death experience and warns that Nazi aggressors will soon threaten their lives. Nobody would listen to him until everything he said became a reality. When the Nazis came, Ellie’s family was still calm. All the Jews were transported to the ghettos.In chapter 3 of his book, there was a bombing while they were in the concentration camp at Buna. They were glad they were bombing because they wanted to die. The camps were already torture so they would rather die than suffer any longer. After the bombing, the gallows were set up. The SS officers drags a Polish man out of solitary confinement. He was going to be hanged for stealing something during the air raid. Before he was killed, he said “A curse on Germany! Long live liberty!” Elie had witnessed more hangings. The worst one he saw was the hanging of a young boy who is involved in resistance activities. His death wasn’t instant because he was very light in his weight. The inmates were forced to watch as the boy on the end of the rope struggles for half an hour before he dies.There was a movement called the The Racial Hygiene Movement (RHM). The Racial Hygiene Movement, which began in Germany in 1905, had few supporters until the Nazis came to power. The RHM was the removal of those who would not improve the German race and had no use in society. The men and women who suffered from any of the nine conditions assumed to be from the heredity. Those nine conditions were feeblemindedness, schizophrenia, manic-depressive disorder, genetic epilepsy, Huntington’s disease, genetic blindness, genetic deafness, severe physical deformity, and chronic alcoholism. The mastermind behind the Racial Hygiene Movement was a psychiatrist by the name of Ernst Rüdin. In his career, he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany. He also helped formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s, Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program called euthanasia.The Jews were not the only group dealing with genocides. Native Americans dealt with this problem as well. This issue has been contentious. California’s state militia companies, United States Army units, vigilante groups and individuals targeted the American Indian population. They killed as many as 16,000 California Indians. Many of them died on federal Indian reservations or in hiding, while others were enslaved and worked to death. This largely forgotten history of state-sanctioned mass murder is revealed in Madley’s book “An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe.” The book narrates the systematic and brutal campaigns of slaughter and enslavement during California’s indigenous population plunged from as many as 150,000-30,000 people. Madley was the first historian to discover the full version of the slaughter, the involvement of state and federal officials, the taxpayer dollars that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killings, and why the killings ended.Rwanda, Africa experienced the same issue. In 100 days in 1994, 800,000 people were slaughtered in Rwanda by Hutu extremists. They were targeting members and political opponents of the minor Tutsi community. In 1959, the Hutu overthrew the Tutsi. Tens of thousands of Tutsi fled to close countries. A group of Tutsi formed a rebel group called the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). The Rwandan Patriotic Front is the ruling political party in Rwanda. The leader of the RPF is Paul Kagame. Paul Kagame is the current President of Rwanda having taken office in 2000. The RPF invaded Rwanda in 1990. No one really tried to stop it. The UN was in Rwanda but they were not given a mandate to stop the killings that occurred. The Hutu set up radio stations and newspapers urging people to “weed out the cockroaches” meaning murder the Tutsi. The French sent a force to set up a safe zone but they were accused of not doing their jobs in order to stop the slaughtering in that area. It ended with the RPF seizing more territory until July fourth. The forces marched into the capital of Kigali. Later, two million Hutus fled into Zaire (Dominican Republic Congo). They were afraid of the possible attacks that would happen. The RPF killed thousands of Hutu civilians as they took power. The genocide in Rwanda led to two decades of no peace in DR Congo This cost the lives of five million people. The PDF accused its much larger neighbor of letting the Hutu militias operate on its territory. It is important to know the Rwandan genocide because it only lasted one hundred days, but it took numerous lives. The government in Rwanda was aware of the tragedies and they still let it happen. Movies like “Sometimes in April” and “Hotel Rwanda” portrayed what it was like to live through this horrific massacre simply because one race felt it was superior to another.In conclusion, there are various circumstances that give rise to genocide. Circumstances  like the conditions of an economy, political groups and social customs have contributed to the polarization of different groups within a region. Wiesel wants to make sure that genocide never happens again. As a society, topics like genocide can be easily ignored. Society should take steps toward treating all races as being one that is equal. “Never Again” are the words that are enshrined in Holocaust Memorials in Washington, D.C. and in concentration camps. It is society’s responsibility to recognize and prevent genocides from occurring.  Germany/Poland, Rwanda, and California are all constant reminders of social and moral inequalities that lead to the deaths of millions due to one group dehumanizing another.

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