Despite the wide use (and misuse) of terms such as intelligent systems, there is no widely agreed-upon scientific definition of intelligence. It is then useful to think of intelligence in terms of an open collection of attributes. There is a list of attributes that are seen as the general characteristics of intelligence and a few examples of these are Communication, adaptation, and reasoning. AI systems do not come anywhere close to exhibiting any of these characteristics, except for in narrow areas. People would probably agree that trademark of intelligence is certainly not the ability to display any of these attributes but the ability to do this in a wide range of areas. It is also known that different systems can display different attributes of intelligence in different degrees.What is Artificial intelligence? Well, we can observe artificial intelligence in our everyday lives, for example, Alexa which is amazon’s google search based machine, fingerprint / Facial recognition for our cell phones,  and even the self-driving cars that were created by Tesla. Each of these listed is some forms of artificial intelligence (AI) and but as stated before, they are only narrow but they are showing us that there are advances being made at an astonishing rate. AI is often viewed as machines that express human characteristics. Today’s day in age, Artificial intelligence is only used in narrow forms, for example, facial recognition, voice-activated online searches, and even driving a car as seen in the Tesla. The end goal that most researchers have for AI is that they wish that humans will be outperformed by machines in nearly every cognitive task.How does one create Artificial intelligence? This is the focus on what society is doing now. In the 1970’s scientists found that computers could be programmed to do a set of instructions but were unable to provide a code for feelings or even the ability to give meaning to their life (Honavar). However in today’s society, AI is generally made out of a discipline called Machine learning, and this often explores the construction and the algorithms that can be learned. In machine learning, there are three subgroups, Supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. Each of these having a significant impact on the world of AI. First, Supervised learning, the machine is given the initial inputs and the results and would have to learn the rule in which it would use to get to that outcome over and over again. This leads to unsupervised learning, which is essentially the opposite of supervised. No labels are given to the machine and it has to find out the structure of the input required. This can often be a goal on its own because it can allow for the possibility of new patterns to be found both for the data and a solution. To explain the third, it is known as reinforcement learning, this is when the computer program interacts with the environment and is forced to perform its goal, without being informed if it has completed its objective or not. Another example of this is being taught a game while playing against another individual I.e. Chess. (kohavi & Provost)With explaining how AI is made, I will now lead to the risks of Artificial intelligence. Many scientists believe that a super machine is not going to possess human characteristics like love or hate. Instead, they believe that the AI will either be programmed to do something devastating or be programmed for something to benefit society but in turn develops a destructive idea for achieving its end goal. The best example of this is that artificial intelligence can be seen in Stuart Russell’s book Artificial intelligence: A modern approach the hypothesis of the book is that society should be afraid of AI technology learning function. The evidence that they show to support this is the technological advances that have occurred over the years with AI it is seen that not only is AI being made more capable of mimicking, but they are also raising the social benefit of AI. The United States Armed forces over the years have built weapons that are 100% autonomous and often programmed to kill. If these machines were to fall into the wrong hands, mass casualties would occur. Moreover, in our past, we have already gone through one race with a country to see who could create the best and most of something. What would stop our country from entering another race leading could lead into an AI war that could also lead to mass casualties. This risk is very present in today’s narrow AI, and it continues to grow as the AI intelligence increases. The next risk comes from when society fails to side with the goals of Artificial intelligence. Say you ask an obedient robot to clean your house as quick as possible, It might get it done in five minutes but you might have ripped curtains, turn up carpet or even a broken sink, but it will be doing exactly what you asked for. These examples may illustrate the concern about AI being advanced, but a Super AI will be extremely good at achieving the goals set forth, and if they are not aligned with societies, the end goal will have problems.  The flood of data can often overwhelm society, but the advances in technology have helped deliver and have helped develop new tools that allowed us to make sense of it. Many different researchers are developing artificial intelligence, mostly in the form of artificial neural networks, on data torrents (Appenzeller). Science isn’t just being transformed by AI, it is paving the way for technological advances and the possibility of a mass unemployment. The key thing that scientists are expecting is that it will have the ability to expedite the way society discovers new things. Artificial intelligence and its technology are just a single side of what is to come from there. It will always come up with new ideas, innovations, and products. AI is currently not how it is perceived in Hollywood, however, scientists are trying to achieve that level of intelligence in robots in the years to come. To wrap it all up, we have talked about the definitions of AI, a brief portion of the history, and the applications of everyday life and the military. These are not at all anywhere near the end of the cycle for AI, there are many more advancements to come from it. Who knows, maybe someday we will have “John Connor” come back in time and warn “Sarah Connor” about a murderous robot coming back in time to kill her.

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