Definition (Hoppock, 1935). The scholar has defined it

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Definition of job satisfaction has been translated and
defined by various studies. There are many perspectives that has been taken in
order to defined job satisfaction as a subject matter to discuss. According to
Locke (1976), through his research, he defined that job satisfaction is a pleasant
or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job
experience. He concluded that the aspect of affect, or feeling and cognition,
or thinking is an important element that defined job satisfaction. Other
scholars has defined job satisfaction as any combination of psychological,
physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to
say I am satisfied with my job (Hoppock, 1935). The scholar has defined it as in
order for workers to be satisfied with their jobs, a combination of factors
which is mental, physical and environment plays a major part in achieving job
satisfaction. According to Vroom (1964), job satisfaction is defines as
effective orientations on the part of individuals towards work roles which they
are presently occupying. The scholar’s research concludes that individuals
towards their work must be in line to achieve job satisfaction.

There are many factors that contribute towards job
satisfaction among employees. In a recent study, there are several aspects
rated as very important relates to job satisfaction which are compensation, or
salary/wages, career development, or promotion, and job-specific training (Lee et al., 2016). Job satisfaction is very important aspect relates to
the employees job performance. According to Lease (1998) in Singh (2013) researched 
about Study of Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Its Impact in Their
Performance, the more satisfied employees towards their jobs, they are more
likely to be less absent, less likely to leave, more productive, more likely to
display organizational commitment, and more likely to be satisfied with their
lives. In Malaysia, according to a research done by Jules (2017), it is proven that employees will be less likely to
execute job-hopping if the level of job satisfaction is high.


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Salary can be defined as the remuneration or payment
by the employer as a tool of payment which in the form of currency to the
employees (Z. Li, 2013). Based on the past research, salary or wages is one
of the major aspects towards job satisfaction (Lee et al., 2016). Results from a Study of Employees’ Job Satisfaction
and Its Impact in Their Performance, there were significant positive
correlation between job satisfaction and either hourly or annually wages (Fogleman, Milligan,
Maloney, & Knoblauch, 1999). It is proven also in other research which concluded
that salary is significantly affect job satisfaction, where if the salary was
not given on the time that the employee is supposed to received, they would be
highly dissatisfied with their jobs and due to that, they will start thinking
of quitting the job (Akbar, Usman, &
Ramzan, 2013). Nisar et al., (2010) also support that salary have a significant role in
achieving job satisfaction. Research has been done also in hospitality
organization in Malaysia, where one of the reasons for employee to stay in the
organization is salary (Rasmi et al., 2013). Other research in Malaysia as well has concluded
that employees were really concerned on the compensation or salary to make them
satisfied with the organization (An, Ying, Sheng, &
Yew Soo Bin, 2013).

Job promotion

The definition for job promotion are simply an upgrade
of the current position which the consequences of it includes increased of
wages, training receipt, supervisory responsibilities and job satisfaction (Pergamit & Veum,
1995). Past research has also stated that promotion is one of the major
aspects towards job satisfaction (Lee et al., 2016). Many scholars have done in their research to support
the statement. According to Ehsan Malik et al., (2012), from their study in Pakistan, promotion has
significant impact on the job satisfaction of educationalist. Other scholars in
their study concludes that work conditions, farness, promotion and pay are key
factors affecting pharmaceuticals companies employees job satisfaction (Parvin & Karbin,
2011). Other past research also shows that lagged promotions have a
significant correlation with job satisfaction (Kosteas, 2010). According to Naveed, Usman, &
Bushra (2011) as well, in their research concluded by regression analysis which there
were positive relationship between promotion and job satisfaction. In Malaysia,
there were also research that concludes in the analysis that there is a
significant impact of promotion towards job satisfaction on employee turnover
intention in the manufacturing industry (Chin, 2018).

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