Cupisti, fewer mean (+/- 4.0 SEM) servings

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(2002). This
study aims to investigate dietary composition and nutrition knowledge of 60
athlete and 59 non-athlete adolescent females (age, 14-18 years), using a 3-day
food recall method used. The reported daily energy intake was similar in athletes
and non-athletes, but less than the recommended and the estimated requirements.
In the athletes, the energy supply from breakfast was higher than in the
non-athletes. Energy intake from carbohydrates was higher and that from lipids
was lower in athletes than in non-athletes. Athletes also showed higher fiber. Iron
and vitamin A reported intake than non-athletes. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake
were less than 100% RDA in both groups. Athletes gave a slightly higher rate of
correct answers on the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (77.6 vs. 71.6%,p < .01) than non-athletes. The overall recalled dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of the studied adolescent female's show some misconceptions and nutrient deficiencies, but the results in athletes are quite better man in non-athletes, suggesting a favorable role of sport practice on dietary habits and nutrition knowledge. Frederick L , Hawkins ST (1992) the aim of the study was comparison of nutrition knowledge and attitudes, dietary practices, and bone densities of four groups of women: 18 postmenopausal women, 13 members of a college track team, and 14 non athletic college women and 14 college-aged dancers,. Personal information questionnaire used, a 24-hour dietary recall method used, a food frequency questionnaire, a nutrition knowledge test, and an attitude survey; measurements of the subjects' spinal bone density were also taken. The mean (+/- 0.5 standard error SEM) nutrition knowledge score of the dancers (22.5) was significantly lower than the mean scores of the postmenopausal women (28.5), the non athletes (29.7), and the track team members (26.5). Dancers also reported eating fewer mean (+/- 4.0 SEM) servings of high-calcium foods per month (43) than did postmenopausal women (77), non athletes (66), or track team members (73). Track team members had a significantly higher mean (+/- 0.2 SEM) anorexia/bulimia score (3.7) than did postmenopausal women (2.5), non athletes (2.1), or dancers (2.2). There were no significant differences in bone mineral density among the four groups and high-calcium foods eaten was significantly correlated with nutrition knowledge scores (r = .38) and attitude scores (R = .32), but nutrition knowledge and attitude scores were not significantly correlated with each other. The track team members exercised significantly more than women in all other groups--mean (+/- 40 SEM) minutes exercise time was 700 minutes/week for track team members, 79 minutes/week for postmenopausal women, 92 minutes/week for non athletes, and 500 minutes/week for dancers--and also experienced the most amenorrhea. Arazi, H., & Hosseini, R.: (2012) the aim of the study comparison of nutritional knowledge and food habits of collegiate and non collegiate athletes in Rasht city of Iran. The nutrition knowledge and habits questionnaire distributed to 130 collegiate and non-collegiate athletes males and 120 Collegiate and non- collegiate athletes females randomly. The questionnaire contained 15 nutrition knowledge questions and 25 nutrition habits questions. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient (p < .05). The correct response rate for the sport nutrition and general nutrition score were in collegiate athletes male (57.15; 52.5%) and athletes female (58.14; 54.85%); non-collegiate athlete's males (41.55; 39.86%) and athletes female (42.11; 40.66 %) The mean of nutrition scores in collegiate athlete?s males and females were significantly higher than non-collegiate athletes male and females. significant differences in the collegiate and non-collegiate athletes (p < .05). the result of the study knowledge of Iranian non-collegiate athletes were lower than collegiate athletes. nutrition knowledge and attitudes of Iranian non-collegiate athletes need to improve. Hopkins, et al; (1991).Nutrition knowledge and dietary habits questionnaire was completed by 122 New Zealand (NZ) sports at elite and non-elite (recreational level). The elite athletes had higher nutrition knowledge scores and their dietary health habits were closer to the NZ nutrition guidelines than those of the non-elite group. Nutrition knowledge was correlated moderately with dietary health habits (r = 0.44, p<0.01), and this relationship was significantly stronger (p<0.01) among the non-elite athletes (r = 0.62) than the elite athletes (r = 0.23). Dena Maureen Block, (1999). The conducted of this study of the menstrual irregularities of female adolescent high school cross-country runners, ranging from 13-18 years of age. The data was collected with subjects' age, year in school, exercise history, menstrual history, and training regimens and nutritional information. Menstrual status were determine of the One group (normal) menstrual cycle for at least one year ( n= 17), and other group (abnormal) (n=l8). 20 item questionnaires were used. The nutrition knowledge questions topics used such as fluids and hydration, nutritional supplementation, the pre-competition meal, special dietary concerns, and general nutrition. Body composition was assessed by the age, sex and specific skin fold. No significant differences were observed (p>.05) T-tests were determining statistically significant
differences in nutrition knowledge scores between the two groups. Chi-square
analyses were comparing individual question. It concluded that not one specific
measure is responsible for an adolescent to experience menstrual disorders, a
varying combination of traits such as age, exercise history, nutritional
habits, and nutritional knowledge.

al; (2013) The purpose of this study
was the body composition, nutritional habits, eating disorder risk, and
menstrual health of collegiate volleyball players. Female collegiate volleyball
players (N = 14)
completed a 7 day food dietary recall method used, menstrual health
questionnaire, and EAT-26 survey. Body composition was determined using by a 3
site skin fold test and the Bod Pod®. Half (50%) of participants were deemed
“At-Risk” (AR) for disordered eating according to EAT-26 results. consumed calories
(1928 + 476) meeting only 69.35% and energy expenditure (2780.66 + 148.88). CHO
intake range of 6-10g/kg/day for athletes (3.49 + 0.89g/CHO/kg/day) and the
recommended intake range of 1.2-1.7 g/kg/day for protein for athletes (1.17 +
0.35). Body fat percentage using the Bod Pod® (22.76 + 6.25%). In conclusion,
the current study suggests that collegiate female volleyball players’ diets
inadequate in calories, protein, and carbohydrates, placing them at risk for
subsequent medical ailments including menstrual dysfunction.

Dars, et al; (2014) To evaluate the effect of Body Mass Index and nutritional
status on the menstrual cycle in adolescent girls. Four hundred one adolescent
girls were selected from 5 schools in Hyderabad.
The data was collected by trained medical undergraduate and postgraduates by
interviewing adolescent school girls using a pre-tested questionnaire. BMI was
calculated using the formula: BMI (kg/m2) = Weight (kg) / Height 2 (m2). HB was
estimated by Sahlis method using a haemoglobinometer. Data was analyzed using
SPSS 11.0. total 305 girls (76%) of the girls had a normal menstrual cycle, 28
girls (7 %) had frequent periods, 52 girls (13%) had infrequent periods and 16
girls (4%) of the girls had totally irregular cycles. 305 girls (76%) of girls
had a normal menstrual flow, 68 girls (17%) had heavy flow and 28girls (7%) had
scanty flow. 152 girls (38%) of girls complained of premenstrual symptoms. 231
girls (60%) were clinically anemic. 277 girls (69%) had a BMI between 18.5 –
24.9 kg/m2. One hundred and eight (27%) were underweight with a BMI of 14
– 18.49kg/m2, while sixteen (4%) were overweight with BMI 25 – 29.99 kg/m2. A
statistically significant relationship was found between BMI and social class
(P<0.001) and BMI and menstrual cycle P<0.001).The study concludes that nutritional deficiency diseases in the girls. Out of the 401 girls were checked, 231 girls were found to be anemic. Majority of the girls (84%) had a normal menstrual pattern, normal BMI and attained menarche before the age of 16. Overweight girls had infrequent periods. COBB, et al: (2002) To examine the relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mineral density (BMD) in young female runners. Subjects were 91 competitive female distance runners aged 18–26 yr. Disordered eating was measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. EDI (highest quartile) was associated with amenorrhea. amenorrheic runners had lower BMD than eumenorrheic runners at the spine 5%, hip 6%, and whole body 3%, even after accounting for weight, percent body fat, EDI score, and age at menarche. Eumenorrheic runners with elevated EDI scores had lower BMD than eumenorrheic runners with normal EDI scores at the spine 11%, with trends at the hip 5%, and whole body 5%, after adjusting for differences in weight and percent body fat. Runners with both an elevated EDI score and amenorrhea had no further reduction in BMD than runners with only one of these risk factors. In young competitive female distance runners, disordered eating is strongly related to menstrual irregularity, menstrual irregularity is associated with low BMD, and disordered eating is associated with low BMD in the absence of menstrual irregularity. Nascimento. M. et. al; (2016) The objective of the present study is to compare the nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20–32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12–19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athlete's body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition; however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.     Homai, et al; (2014).   The aims of the study to comparing the menarche age, menstrual regularity, dysmenorrhea and analgesic consumption among athletic and non-athletic students at the universities of Tabriz. 2010 on 360 girl students in 18-28 years old majoring in medicine and non-medicine at the universities of Tabriz. Samples were chosen selectively and completed the questionnaires, visual analogue scale (VAS), sport and menstrual record. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software via descriptive and inferential statistical tests (Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square). P<0.05 was considered as significant. The menarche age (P=0.001) and menstrual disorder (P=0.026) had significant difference. The frequency of dysmenorrhea in athletic and non-athletic group did not have significant statistical difference (P=0.39) while the analgesic consumption was significantly lower in the athletic group (P=0.001).  This study showed that sport can improve dysmenorrhea and decrease the need for analgesic for improving the dysmenorrhea among the people. it is vary necessary to pay more attention to nutrition which is one of the important reasons of delayed menarche and menstrual disorder. Ozbar, et al; (2016) The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of menstruation cycle on sportswomen performing team sports. In the study,  18-questioned survey to 40 footballer, 40 handball players, 40 volleyball players and 40 basketball players doing sports at a distinguished level being as in total 160 sportswomen related to their menstruation cycle. Frequency and variation analysis is used for the analysis of the data. Menstruation beginning ages successively 13.02 years, 13.05 years, 13.04 years, and 13.66 years. Athletes normally there are an irregularity with menstruation at a rate of 19.4 percent. 10% of athletes used drug during sports event, 8.8 % menstruation cycle is painful, 35.6 % is painless, and 55.6 % is sometimes experienced painful. And menstruation 78.1 % of athletes stated feeling themselves well the pre-menstruation phase 10.1 %.  During the menstruation phase 19.9 % of athletes stated that their performance is the same, 2.5 % stated that better. It is concluded that menstruation cycle does not affect the performance of the athletes taking part in the study.

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