Crime Prevention

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Introduction

The State of California aims to achieve a safe as well as drug-free community through enforcement of various prevention programs. The state officers have the duty to prevent targeted crimes in cooperation with the local as well as federal officers. They are also assisted by the local community members. One of the programs that have been implemented by the state is the Gang Violence Suppression Program which was created through the California Penal Code, Chapter 3.5 (Davis, 2003).

The program aims to minimize gang violence within the California community. It also aims to change potentially dangerous activities of gangs into more valuable as well as constructive behavior. The program helps remove dangerous weapons such as guns, explosives among others from the street. It removes violent offenders such as career criminals as well as repeat offenders from the streets of California.

The program uses CALGANG Information System to track gangs as well as their members which is necessary for investigating gang-related crimes. GVS program therefore provides funds to the California Department of Justice to operate the CALGANG System since it is the lead agency among the components of the GVS Program.

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Purpose

The purpose of the study is to analysis the success and the effectiveness of Gang Violence Suppression Program in California.

Thesis Statement

The Gang Violence Suppression Program has achieved significant success in reducing gangs and gang-related crimes.

Reasons for establishment

According to Justia US Law (2009), it was realized by the California legislature that gang violence and gang activities were fast growing in the state. School age pupils and students were also not left out in this and their level of involvement was increasing.

Besides, there were several schools that provided education to many youths who were involved in gang activities; however, these schools were not able to effectively implement programs which could help prevent the students from getting involved in gang activities since there was no statewide funded program in institutions for such purposes.

The legislature also found evidence that the parents of those involved in gangs do not have appropriate parenting skills considering that the youths get involved in gangs while still young. Gang involvement is usually a result of lack of positive role models (Justia US Law, 2009).

Gang Violence Suppression Program was therefore established to support the district attorneys’ offices in prosecuting offenders involved in gang violence; and the local law-enforcement agencies in crime and criminal identification, investigation as well as apprehension of suspected offenders of gang violence.

It was also implemented to assist county probation departments to provide extensive supervision to gang members on probation. It was also established to support prevention as well as intervention of gang violence through school districts. Finally, it was found that it was necessary to achieve gang violence suppression through community-based organizations (Justia US Law, 2009).

Elements of the Gang Violence Suppression Program

Suppression activities involved in the GVS Program include the use of computerized criminal identification as well as tracking systems, community based organizations, vertical prosecution in addition to specialized police response (Davis 2003). It also applies intensive probation supervision and education provision through schools.

Specialized police response

This component of GVS Program focuses mainly on developing expert gang units in law enforcement agencies so as to help in investigation, identification as well as apprehension of offenders involved in gang violence. The specialized law enforcement divisions work together with other agencies funded by the program to address gang violence problems within the community.

They share intelligence information as well as strategies. They are responsible for providing crime analysis especially in gang related crimes as well as the gangs and their members. They also facilitate processes of community policing with an aim of achieving gang suppression. The law enforcement division is also responsible for enforcing curfew as well as truancy violations.

Prosecution

The prosecution component carries out vertical prosecution criminals found to be involved in violent gangs. This is done by specialized prosecutors while ensuring protection to cooperating witnesses from acts of retribution as well as intimidation that could come from gang members.

They provide existing information particularly on prosecution patterns for gang-related crimes so as to help in crime analysis. They also defend against pretrial release of criminals involved violent crimes and are awaiting trial and also minimize the plea bargaining by such offenders.

Probation

This component is responsible for providing intensive supervision to offenders identified to belong to violent gangs and is put on probation so as to ensure that they adhere to the conditions of their probation. Probation component works hand in hand with law enforcement as well as prosecution agencies in enforcing some specific provisions of probation which are used for monitoring gang members who are on probation.

Prevention

Here, community based organizations help in preventing as well as intervening in impending violent gang activities. They communicate and mediate with such gang members who live in the community. It also provides gang awareness education to adult members of the community and counseling programs. The component ensures cooperative working relationship among all the components by providing cultural as well as linguistic support.

Education

The program provides gang violence prevention as well as intervention services to violent gang activities that could occur in schools. Specialized gang units are used to train school administrators, students and teachers on gang activity indicators and proper responses.

Effectiveness of GVS Program

Combined efforts of law enforcement, justice and probation institutions, community organizations and schools have produced significant results in fighting violent gangs and related crimes. According to Davis (2003) studies have shown that vertical prosecution of offenders involved in gangs and related crimes has been a very effective approach. The program has lead to reduced caseloads due to vertical prosecution; has promoted additional investigative support; and has also provided resources for supporting victims.

The program has also promoted more convictions of gang members and violent offenders. It has improved the level of commitments within the state prisons. It has provided support to the fight against narcotics crossing its borders and within the community. The law enforcement aggressively investigates tips on drug as well as gang related activity within the community.

The program helps to remove hard-core gang members who live in the community since there is intense supervision on them (Everhart & Kirby, 2003). In addition, the knowledge of the repercussions for getting involved in gang-related activities discourages other youths from active involvement. It reduces the street gang subculture through education.

Statistical Analysis of the success of the program

Statistical data of the activities of the GVS Program have shown that the program has been very effective

The table below shows the progress report of the program between 1998 and 2001. The report revealed that significant accomplishments of the objectives of the law enforcement component.

Measurements98-9999-0000-01Total
Funds allocated$1,717,863$1,518,205$1,508,205$4,744,273
Individuals identified as gang members14,39220,56725,59560,554
Crimes investigated by special GVS unit1,7721,9731,7515,496
Gang members arrested3,0373,4562,8469,339

Categories: Career

The share important characteristics; there are reasons

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The truth about crime prevention is more complicated less utopian than some liberals would like, but far more promising than conservatives will admit. Prevention can work and that it can be far less costly, in every sense, than continuing to rely on incarceration as out first defense against violent crimes. Instead of simply insisting that prevention is better than incarceration, then, we need to pinpoint more clearly what kinds of prevention workand why some programs work and others do not, the most encouraging efforts share important characteristics; there are reasons why they work, whether the target population is abusive families, vulnerable teens, or serious juvenile offenders whove already broken the law. Likewise, there are reasons why other programs fail, no matter how fashionable or popular they may be. Given what weve learned about crime prevention in recent years, four priorities seem especially critical: preventing child abuse and neglect, enhancing childrens intellectual and social development, providing support and guidance to vulnerable adolescents and working intensively with juvenile offenders. These arent the preventive strategies that can make a difference, but they are the ones that offer the strongest evidence of effectiveness. And they also fit our growing understanding of the roots delinquency and violent crime.
The first priority is to invest serious resources in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. The evidence is compelling that this is where much of the violent crime that plagues us begins, especially the kinds of violence we fear the most. It is known that most abused children never go on to injure others. But the correlation between later violent crime and childhood abuse is strong and consistent, especially for the most serious kinds of violence. It turned out that being abused or neglected had little effect, if any, on minor forms of delinquency. But for serious delinquencyand violent crime in particular it mattered a great deal. The youths who had been abused were arrested almost twice as often, and reported almost twice as many violent offenses. The ideology is that if we prevent these tragedies, we can reduce violent crime.

The Elmira program is amongst one of the programs that have been developed. This program served vulnerablemostly white, poor, young, and marriedin a semi rural community with some of the highest levels of child abuse and neglect in the state. The project had several related goals: to ensure more healthful pregnancies and births, improve the quality of parental care and enhance the womans own development. The program seem successful while in progress however, once the program ended the effects seemed to fadea common pattern in many early intervention programs. By the end of the second year after the experiment, there were no differences in the number of abuse and neglect reports. Even so, the researchers calculated that the program, which cost only about $3000 per family served, paid for itself through the money saved in child protective and welfare costs.Curries then goes on to discuss other alternatives for prevention of child abuse and neglect. He sums up this portion of the discussion by stating that there is more to learn about these programs. But taken together, they show that it is possible to reduce the maltreatment of children often dramatically-among troubled families.
The second priority in crime prevention is to expand and enhance early intervention for children at risk of impaired cognitive development, behavior problems, and early failure in school. Once again, the why is not mysterious. The link between these troubles and later delinquency is depressingly consistent. Poor children aged three and four were enrolled in preschool for two and half hours a day. In addition, their teachers visited the children and their mothers at home once a week for about an hour and a half. Most of the children stayed in the program for two years, a few for just one. This program as called the Perry project. It allowed children to explore the meaning of those activates with their teachers. The project was assigned to 123 neighborhoods children and the outcome was widely disseminated. But what makes them particularly striking is that they were achieved with such modest means, and with unusually high-risk children in severally disadvantaged communities. The author then goes

Categories: Behavior

In rather than questioned and interrogated. This

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In order to give an attempt to measure crime, it is necessary to look at the official statistic data that holds all reported crimes. Many would argue that the data held is not accurate or reliable. This is because there are many crimes that are committed which go unrecorded. Muncie (1996) refers to these as “Dark Figure. ” Such example of a “Dark Figure” is where the offence is classed as minor, the police would often release the offender with just a caution, thus saving police time and paperwork but complicates the measuring of crime.

Muncie (1996) also refers to “Dark Figures” to crimes that are unrecorded as they was never reported to begin with. There are many issues that make the measuring of accurate crime offences impossible. Another such issue is that of, prisoners participating in “Qualitative research method. ” This research is aimed at small group of prisoners who are interviewed rather than questioned and interrogated. This research is generally used for understanding methods of crime and why people commit crime (Croall 1998).

This type of research could be used for measuring the types of crime people commit. It is difficult to use these studies for measuring crime, as often the interviewer can often get too involved with the participants and their own views and judgments could get in the way, by influencing the answers on the questionnaires. Such crimes can be prevented within the society to a certain degree by agencies within the criminal justice system such as the police, judiciary and the probation service.

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These agencies help to control crime and to keep it to its minimum or to prevent the crime from re-occurring again (Abercrombie 2002). But the question to be asked is to whether the legal system treats everyone equally within it or are, individuals treated differently according to their group. For example Eaton (1986) argues that there are gender inequalities in the system. Men are more likely to receive a prison sentence for the same line of offence as woman has committed, however the women’s sentence would not be that severe.

There are many punishments that one could have for committing a crime such as being imprisoned, community service and a suspended sentence. Since the 1970’s there has been a focus on the possibilities of “decarceration. ” This is a proposal to abolish all prisons and asylums and for the prisoners to be amongst the society in a number of facilities supported by the community (Abercrombie 2002). But it could be argued that this proposal could help criminals to re-offend and live an easy life rather than being punished for the crime they have committed.

It also said that the space for an inmate in the prison is limited, as prisons are very cramped with a vast number of criminals, thus giving all minor offences an alternative punishment due to the lack of cells. It is also very costly to keep a criminal imprisoned. A duration of someone being in custody for just a month is about i?? 2,000 compared to a prisoner with a probation order which is i?? 89, hence suggesting the demolishing of the prison service. It has been proven that Britain has the third highest prisoner rate in the European Union (Abercrombie 2002).

Through critically analysing globalisation, crime and crime prevention it can be clearly seen that there are many factors against such issues and which are evidentially expressed in many aspects of society today. It can be said that we may well be heading towards a global society, but we have not reached the point of complete globalisation. As we have global influences upon the society such as foreign made television and working for a foreign country, the society can be classed as a global society.

However this aspect of globalisation is present in many modern societies, these influences have become greater and more common. As mentioned we are living in “one place” (Waters 1995) however this could be argued as the number of British culture influences within society still naturally outweigh foreign or global aspect, as long as there are still historical record, nationality can never be totally eroded. Space did not permit many other issues that could critically discuss globalisation.

In conclusion to crime and crime prevention, it can be said that there are a number of ways that crime can be measured and go some way towards enhancing our knowledge and understanding patterns of crime. However they do not give the whole picture as other variables alter and skew the statistics, which on the surface can appear to give a true picture. This is potentially damaging as it can affect where the government put its resources. For example focusing on one problem could result in other problems becoming just as important, leaving fewer resources to deal with the problem.

As for the proposal to demolish prisons, this will become a major issue to come, as the society would not like the fact criminals being amongst them and their children. However in the future, new Laws/acts might prevent or help globalisation and crime from occurring, but it can be argued that even though theses Acts may be enforced, to what extent are they going to be implemented by the society?

References/ Bibliography Abercrombie, N & Warde, A. (2003 3rd edition) Contemporary British Society, USA: Blackwell publishing Inc. Anderson, J. , Brook, C & Cochrane A.(1995) A Global World,? USA: The Open University. Clinard, N & Abbott, D. (1973) Crime In Developing Countries, USA. Croall, H. (1998) Crime and Society In Britain, London. Eaton (1986) sited in Abercrombie (2002).

Entorf, H & Spengler, H. (2002) Crime In Europe, Germany: Heidelberg Larson, C (1984) Crime Justice & Society, USA: General Hall Inc. Muncie, J & McLauhlin E. (1996) The Problem Of Crime, London. Soros, G (1995) The Capitalist Threat www. theatlantic. com/issues/98/jan/opensoc. htm 29/12/03 Waters, M (1995) Globalisation Routledge, London.

Categories: Government

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